Atheroembolic renal disease: Analysis of clinical and therapeutic factors that influence its progression [Enfermedad renal ateroembólica: Un análisis de los factores clínicos y terapéuticos que influyen en su evolución]
Gutierrez Solis E.,Servicio de Nefrologia |
Morales E.,Servicio de Nefrologia |
Rodriguez Jornet A.,Hospital Parc Tauli |
Andreu F.J.,Hospital Parc Tauli |
And 6 more authors.
Nefrologia | Year: 2010
Cholesterol embolism is a disease caused by distal showering of cholesterol crystal released from disintegration of arterial atheromatous plaques. It may occur spontaneously or more often after invasive vascular procedures or thrombolytic/anticoagulant agents. Forty five cases were diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 in three Spanish hospitals. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology or diagnostic ophthalmoscopic findings. The majority were male (93.3%), elder (55.5% were older than 70 years), smoker (91.1%), had hypertension (95.6%), with high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. At the time of diagnosis all patients presented acute renal failure. Mean serum creatinine at diagnosis was 4.3± 2.4mg/dl. The acute renal failure was accompanied with eosinophilia (64.4%) and cutaneous lesions (57.7%). 20% of cases occur spontaneously and 46.7% after endovascular manipulation (coronary angiography/arteriography) and only 8% after changes in anticoagulant treatment. After a follow-up of 12 ± 16.3 months the 55.6% of patients need chronic dialysis, 64.4% died, 8 of them after the beginning of dialysis. Nine patients recovered renal function, with a mean creatinine of 3 ± 1.7 mg/dl at the end of follow-up. The cardiovascular comorbididy and the clinical severity of the embolism don't have impact in the renal or patient survival. Renal survival (Kaplan-Meier) were better in spontaneous than in iatrogenic cholesterol embolism. Fifteen of 45 patients were treated with steroids. In treated patients we observed a high incidence of death (73.3% versus 60%) and fewer recovery of renal function (13.3% versus 23%), without statistical significance. The mean time to dialysis was shorter in treatment patients (p = 0.017). Statins treatment was not associated with outcome (renal or individual). In summary, atheroembolic renal disease represents an acute renal failure with special characteristics. Renal and individual outcome is poor, but some patients have spontaneous recovery of renal function. Renal survival was significantly better in spontaneous disease. We don't observe beneficial effect of steroid treatment. © 2010 Revista Nefrología.