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Rivera J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Esteve-Vives J.,Hospital General Universitari dAlacant | Vallejo M.A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Rejas J.,Pfizer
Rheumatology International | Year: 2011

Temporary work disability (TWD) is more common in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) than among the rest of the workers. To describe the differences between patients who take sick leave (TWD group) and those who continue to work regularly (control group). To determine what factors are associated with TWD. Multicentre, cross-sectional study with a cohort of patients with FM seen in rheumatology clinics throughout Spain. The following information was recorded: demographic data, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, health self-perception, emotional issues, functional capacity, physical function tests, utilization of healthcare resources, TWD during the past 12 months, and quitting paid employment due to the disease. Descriptive statistics was used to compare variables between the TWD group and the control group. A logistic regression analysis was done to determine which factors are associated with TWD. The study cohort was composed of 301 patients with FM (women: 96.7%) with a mean age of 48.7 ± 8.5 years and a disease duration of 11.5 ± 9.1 years. There were 56.8% active workers, of whom 67.8% had had some TWD. The mean TWD length was 44 ± 69.6 days/year. TWD correlated significantly with sedentary work, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, self-perceived health, poor functional capacity, physical function, and healthcare resource utilization. The factors independently associated with TWD are sedentary work, more clinical manifestations, fatigue, and poor flexibility. Of the cases of people who quit their jobs, 66.9% were associated with FM. TWD in patients with FM is associated with sedentary work, a worse clinical situation, and worse functional capacity. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Rivera J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Rejas-Gutierrez J.,Pfizer | Vallejo M.A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Esteve-Vives J.,Hospital General Universitari dAlacant | De Salas-Cansado M.,Pfizer
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objective: To estimate the burden and to prospectively analyse resources utilisation and costs in a cohort of treated patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in daily practice. Methods: Prospective, observational, multicentre, 3-month study in 232 patients with FM according to the ACR criteria (98% women, 47 years), with no concomitant systemic diseases, followed in rheumatology units. The control group consisted of 110 subjects without FM or any other systemic condition, paired by age and gender. Clinical assessment, use of healthcare resources and treatments, out-of-pocket expenses, occupational status, days off work, and calculation of lost workdays equivalents were recorded. Results: Patients had worse clinical status, four times the control group's healthcare costs, twelve times its indirect costs and six times its total costs. After the treatment, there was significant clinical improvement in the patient group, the healthcare costs were significantly reduced in all components except for drugs costs, which increased (p<0.001), and out-of-pocket expenses, which remained unaltered. Indirect costs were reduced (p<0.05) in the FM group only, mainly due to fewer days off work. The patient group presented a significantly greater variation in montly total costs than the controls;-€193.75 ± 781.9 vs. -€26.22 ± 402.7, p=0.006. The patients who most reduced their healthcare costs were actively employed. Conclusions: Treated patients with FM in daily practice improved their clinical status and were accompanied by a significant reduction in the cost of the illness. The extra cost of drugs is substantially compensated for by less use of other healthcare resources and fewer days off work. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2012.

Vallejo M.A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Rivera J.,Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Esteve-Vives J.,Hospital General Universitari dAlacant | Rodriguez-Munoz M.F.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental | Year: 2012

Introduction: The HADS is a questionnaire widely used to evaluate anxiety and depression, although its use in fibromyalgia patients has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to know the usefulness of the HADS to evaluate the emotional aspects related to fibromyalgia patients. Methods: This paper studies a sample of 301 fibromyalgia patients. The scientific goodness of the questionnaire is analyzed, and its structure is compared with other models by confirmatory factor analysis. Two external severity indices are used, number of tender points and patient's employment situation. Results: The results show higher levels of anxiety than in other disorders, adequate reliability and a three-factor model with better statistical fit. Nevertheless, this structure was not shown more useful than the two-factor structure for the external criteria studied. Conclusions: The HADS has been shown to be a useful tool for exploring the presence of anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients and that the number of tender points does not seem to be related to the severity of the psychological aspects measured by the HADS in our sample, while there does seem to be a correspondence between psychological condition and absence from work. © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

Vallejo M.A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Rivera J.,Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Esteve-Vives J.,Hospital General Universitari dAlacant | Rejas J.,Pfizer
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2011

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF), an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls.Methods: A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61) and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03). The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest) and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria). A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men) with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35). The study was conducted in Spain.Results: The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different.Conclusions: The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with the added advantage that it offers some additional domains (factors) that provide very valuable information regarding the most delicate aspects of the patient, which must be addressed at the time of treatment in daily clinical practice. © 2011 Vallejo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Vallejo M.A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Rivera J.,Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Esteve-Vives J.,Hospital General Universitari dAlacant
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2010

Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome.Methods: Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients.Results: The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs.Conclusions: This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self-assessment questionnaire based on elements from well known tests. © 2010 Vallejo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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