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Jordan M.B.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Allen C.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | Weitzman S.,Hospital for Sick Children | Filipovich A.H.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | McClain K.L.,Baylor College of Medicine
Blood | Year: 2011

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation, occurring as either a familial disorder or a sporadic condition, in association with a variety of triggers. This immune dysregulatory disorder is prominently associated with cytopenias and a unique combination of clinical signs and symptoms of extreme inflammation. Prompt initiation of immunochemotherapy is essential for survival, but timely diagnosis may be challenging because of the rarity of HLH, its variable presentation, and the time required to perform diagnostic testing. Therapy is complicated by dynamic clinical course, high risk of treatment-related morbidity, and disease recurrence. Here, we review the clinical manifestations and patterns of HLH and describe our approach to the diagnosis and therapy for this elusive and potentially lethal condition. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University | Das J.K.,Aga Khan University | Rizvi A.,Aga Khan University | Gaffey M.F.,Hospital for Sick Children | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Maternal undernutrition contributes to 800000 neonatal deaths annually through small for gestational age births; stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies are estimated to underlie nearly 3·1 million child deaths annually. Progress has been made with many interventions implemented at scale and the evidence for effectiveness of nutrition interventions and delivery strategies has grown since The Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition in 2008. We did a comprehensive update of interventions to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in women and children and used standard methods to assess emerging new evidence for delivery platforms. We modelled the effect on lives saved and cost of these interventions in the 34 countries that have 90% of the world's children with stunted growth. We also examined the effect of various delivery platforms and delivery options using community health workers to engage poor populations and promote behaviour change, access and uptake of interventions. Our analysis suggests the current total of deaths in children younger than 5 years can be reduced by 15% if populations can access ten evidence-based nutrition interventions at 90% coverage. Additionally, access to and uptake of iodised salt can alleviate iodine deficiency and improve health outcomes. Accelerated gains are possible and about a fifth of the existing burden of stunting can be averted using these approaches, if access is improved in this way. The estimated total additional annual cost involved for scaling up access to these ten direct nutrition interventions in the 34 focus countries is Int$9·6 billion per year. Continued investments in nutrition-specific interventions to avert maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies through community engagement and delivery strategies that can reach poor segments of the population at greatest risk can make a great difference. If this improved access is linked to nutrition-sensitive approaches - ie, women's empowerment, agriculture, food systems, education, employment, social protection, and safety nets - they can greatly accelerate progress in countries with the highest burden of maternal and child undernutrition and mortality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Carter M.T.,Hospital for Sick Children | Scherer S.W,Applied Genomics | Scherer S.W,University of Toronto
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2013

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting social communication, language and behavior. The underlying cause(s) in a given individual is often elusive, with the exception of clinically recognizable genetic syndromes with readily available molecular diagnosis, such as fragile X syndrome. Clinical geneticists approach patients with ASDs by ruling out known genetic and genomic syndromes, leaving more than 80% of families without a definitive diagnosis and an uncertain risk of recurrence. Advances in microarray technology and next-generation sequencing are revealing rare variants in genes with important roles in synapse formation, function and maintenance. This review will focus on the clinical approach to ASDs, given the current state of knowledge about their complex genetic architecture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Canton J.,Hospital for Sick Children | Grinstein S.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2014

In mammals, engagement of Toll-like receptors by microbe-associated molecular patterns enhances the responsiveness of NADPH oxidases. Two recent papers report a similar 'priming' mechanism for the plant oxidase RbohD. Despite lacking structural homology, the functional parallels between plants and animals reveal that a common regulatory logic arose by convergent evolution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Waters V.,Hospital for Sick Children
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

The antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis are typically chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. To compare biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy to conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched a registry of ongoing trials and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Most recent search: 02 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials of antibiotic therapy based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data from eligible trials. Additionally, the authors contacted the trial investigators to obtain further information. The search identified one multicentre, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial eligible for inclusion in the review (39 participants). This trial prospectively assessed whether the use of biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing improved microbiological and clinical outcomes in participants with cystic fibrosis who were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The primary outcome was the change in sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density from the beginning to the end of antibiotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) change in density in log(10) colony forming units per gram was -2.94 (2.83) in the biofilm group and -3.27 (3.09) in the control group, for a mean difference of 0.28 (95% confidence interval -1.98 to 2.54) (P = 0.8). The data did not provide evidence that biofilm susceptibility testing was superior to conventional susceptibility testing. The current evidence is insufficient to recommend choosing antibiotics based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Future randomized clinical trials on this topic may shed further light on this question. Source

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