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Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

de Leseleuc L.,McGill University | Orlova M.,McGill University | Cobat A.,McGill University | Girard M.,McGill University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Leprosy is a persistent infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that still affects over 200,000 new patients annually. The host genetic background is an important risk factor for leprosy susceptibility and the PARK2 gene is a replicated leprosy susceptibility candidate gene. The protein product of PARK2, Parkin, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the development of various forms of Parkinsonism. The human macrophage is both a natural host cell of M. leprae as well as a primary mediator of natural immune defenses, in part by secreting important pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that down-regulation of Parkin in THP-1 macrophages, human monocyte-derived macrophages and human Schwann cells resulted in a consistent and specific decrease in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) production in response to mycobacteria or LPS. Interestingly, production of IL-6 at 6 hours by THP-1 cells stimulated with live M. leprae and M. bovis BCG was dependent on pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD). Parkin knockdown in VD-treated cells blocked IL-6 induction by mycobacteria. However, IκB-α phosphorylation and levels of IκB-ξ, a nuclear protein required for IL-6 expression, were not affected by Parkin silencing. Phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 was unaffected by Parkin silencing while JNK activation was promoted but did not explain the altered cytokine production. In a final set of experiments we found that genetic risk factors of leprosy located in the PARK2 promoter region were significantly correlated with M. leprae sonicate triggered CCL2 and IL6 transcript levels in whole blood assays. These results associated genetically controlled changes in the production of MCP-1/CCL2 and IL-6 with known leprosy susceptibility factors. © 2013 de Léséleuc et al. Source

Alter A.,McGill University | De Leseleuc L.,McGill University | Van Thuc N.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | Thai V.H.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | And 12 more authors.
Human Genetics

The chromosomal region 10p13 has been linked to paucibacillary leprosy in two independent studies. The MRC1 gene, encoding the human mannose receptor (MR), is located in the 10p13 region and non-synonymous SNPs in exon 7 of the gene have been suggested as leprosy susceptibility factors. We determined that G396S is the only non-synonymous exon 7-encoded polymorphism in 396 unrelated Vietnamese subjects. This SNP was genotyped in 490 simplex and 90 multiplex leprosy families comprising 704 patients (47% paucibacillary; 53% multibacillary). We observed significant under-transmission of the serine allele of the G396S polymorphism with leprosy per se (P = 0.036) and multibacillary leprosy (P = 0.034). In a sample of 384 Brazilian leprosy cases (51% paucibacillary; 49% multibacillary) and 399 healthy controls, we observed significant association of the glycine allele of the G396S polymorphism with leprosy per se (P = 0.016) and multibacillary leprosy (P = 0.023). In addition, we observed a significant association of exon 7 encoded amino acid haplotypes with leprosy per se (P = 0.012) and multibacillary leprosy (P = 0.004). Next, we tested HEK293 cells over-expressing MR constructs (293-MR) with three exon 7 haplotypes of MRC1 for their ability to bind and internalize ovalbumin and zymosan, two classical MR ligands. No difference in uptake was measured between the variants. In addition, 293-MR failed to bind and internalize viable Mycobacterium leprae and BCG. We propose that the MR-M. leprae interaction is modulated by an accessory host molecule of unknown identity. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Alter A.,McGill University | Fava V.M.,McGill University | Huong N.T.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | Singh M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Human Genetics

One of the persistent challenges of genetic association studies is the replication of genetic marker-disease associations across ethnic groups. Here, we conducted high-density association mapping of PARK2/PACRG SNPs with leprosy and identified 69 SNPs significantly associated with leprosy in 198 single-case Vietnamese leprosy families. A total of 56 associated SNPs localized to the overlapping promoter regions of PARK2/PACRG. For this region, multivariate analysis identified four SNPs belonging to two major SNP bins (rs1333955, rs7744433) and two single SNP bins (rs2023004, rs6936895) that capture the combined statistical evidence (P = 1.1 × 10-5) for association among Vietnamese patients. Next, we enrolled a case-control sample of 364 leprosy cases and 370 controls from Northern India. We genotyped all subjects for 149 SNPs that capture >80 % of the genetic variation in the Vietnamese sample and found 24 SNPs significantly associated with leprosy. Multivariate analysis identified three SNPs (rs1333955, rs9356058 and rs2023004) that capture the association with leprosy (P < 10-8). Hence, two SNPs (rs1333955 and rs2023004) were replicated by multivariate analysis between both ethnic groups. Marked differences in the linkage disequilibrium pattern explained some of the differences in univariate analysis between the two ethnic groups. In addition, the strength of association for two promoter region SNP bins was significantly stronger among young leprosy patients in the Vietnamese sample. The same trend was observed in the Indian sample, but due to the higher age-at-diagnosis of the patients the age effect was less pronounced. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Grant A.V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Grant A.V.,University of Paris Descartes | Alter A.,McGill University | Huong N.T.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

A genomewide association study in Chinese patients with leprosy detected association signals in 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to 6 loci, of which 4 are related to the NOD2 signaling pathway and are Crohn's disease susceptibility loci. Here, we studied these 16 SNPs as potential leprosy susceptibility factors in 474 Vietnamese leprosy simplex families. We replicated SNPs at HLA-DR-DQ, RIPK2, CCDC122-LACC1, and NOD2 as leprosy susceptibility factors in Vietnam. These results validated the striking overlap in the genetic control of Crohn's disease and leprosy. © The Author 2012. Source

Orlova M.,McGill University | Cobat A.,McGill University | Huong N.T.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | Ba N.N.,Hospital for Dermato Venereology | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Leprosy reversal reactions type 1 (T1R) are acute immune episodes that affect a subset of leprosy patients and remain a major cause of nerve damage. Little is known about the relative importance of innate versus environmental factors in the pathogenesis of T1R. In a retrospective design, we evaluated innate differences in response to Mycobacterium leprae between healthy individuals and former leprosy patients affected or free of T1R by analyzing the transcriptome response of whole blood to M. leprae sonicate. Validation of results was conducted in a subsequent prospective study. We observed the differential expression of 581 genes upon exposure of whole blood to M. leprae sonicate in the retrospective study. We defined a 44 T1R gene set signature of differentially regulated genes. The majority of the T1R set genes were represented by three functional groups: i) pro-inflammatory regulators; ii) arachidonic acid metabolism mediators; and iii) regulators of anti-inflammation. The validity of the T1R gene set signature was replicated in the prospective arm of the study. The T1R genetic signature encompasses genes encoding pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of innate immunity. This suggests an innate defect in the regulation of the inflammatory response to M. leprae antigens. The identified T1R gene set represents a critical first step towards a genetic profile of leprosy patients who are at increased risk of T1R and concomitant nerve damage. © 2013 Orlova et al. Source

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