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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Tijet N.,Public Health England | Andres P.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | Chung C.,Public Health England | Lucero C.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | And 70 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The first allele of a 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, rmtD2, conferring very high resistance to all clinically available aminoglycosides, was detected in 7/1,064 enterobacteria collected in 2007. rmtD2 was located on a conjugative plasmid in a Tn2670-like element inside a structure similar to that of rmtD1 but probably having an independent assembly. rmtD2 has been found since 1996 to 1998 mainly in Enterobacter and Citrobacter isolates, suggesting a possible reservoir in these genera. This presumption deserves monitoring by continuous surveillance. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Alfonso C.,Hospital Santojanni | Lopez M.,Hospital Ramos Mejia | Arechavala A.,Hospital Muniz | Perrone M.D.C.,Hospital Penna | And 2 more authors.
Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia | Year: 2010

Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level.Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research.The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. © 2009 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Source

Falzon D.,World Health Organization | Jaramillo E.,World Health Organization | Schunemann H.J.,McMaster University | Arentz M.,University of Washington | And 41 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

The production of guidelines for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) fits the mandate of the World Health Organization (WHO) to support countries in the reinforcement of patient care. WHO commissioned external reviews to summarise evidence on priority questions regarding case-finding, treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), monitoring the response to MDR-TB treatment, and models of care. A multidisciplinary expert panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to develop recommendations. The recommendations support the wider use of rapid drug susceptibility testing for isoniazid and rifampicin or rifampicin alone using molecular techniques. Monitoring by sputum culture is important for early detection of failure during treatment. Regimens lasting ≥20 months and containing pyrazinamide, a fluoroquinolone, a second-line injectable drug, ethionamide (or prothionamide), and either cycloserine or p-aminosalicylic acid are recommended. The guidelines promote the early use of antiretroviral agents for TB patients with HIV on second-line drug regimens. Systems that primarily employ ambulatory models of care are recommended over others based mainly on hospitalisation. Scientific and medical associations should promote the recommendations among practitioners and public health decision makers involved in MDR-TB care. Controlled trials are needed to improve the quality of existing evidence, particularly on the optimal composition and duration of MDR-TB treatment regimens. Source

Di Benedetto N.,Hospital Muniz | Peralta M.,Hospital Muniz | Alvarez E.,Hospital Posadas | Teresa Schroder M.,Hospital Muniz | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2014

Introduction. High activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live longer. In the course of time, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) began to be found in these patients. Investigations have suggested that, as it has been described for other tumors, HIV infection raises the risk of developing HCC. However, convincing evidence is still required. Our aim was to quantify the incidence of HCC in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in the HAART era. Material and methods. This prospective cohort study was conducted in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients with and without HIV co-infection, between june 1, 1999 and May 21, 2010. Ultrasound screening for HCC was performed every 6 to 12 months to all the patients until January 15, 2011. Incidence rate and cumulative incidence (Kaplan-Meier) were calculated. Results. One hundred and forty eight patients (69 hepatitis C virus mono-infected and 79 HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected) were followed for a median time of 43 months, with a total follow-up of 555 person-years (324 for co-infected and 231 for mono-infected patients). Twelve patients developed HCC (5 co-infected and 7 mono-infected). The incidence of HCC in co-infected patients and mono-infected patients was 1.54 (95% confidence interval = 0.5 to 3.6) and 3.03 (95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 6.23) cases per 100 person-year respectively (log-rank p = 0.3225). Conclusion. In the HAART era, HIV co-infection is not associated with a higher incidence of HCC in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients. Source

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