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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Boguszewski M.C.S.,Federal University of Parana | Mericq V.,University of Chile | Bergada I.,Hospital de Ninos Ricardo Gutierrez | Damiani D.,University of Sao Paulo | And 9 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement.Discussion: SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty.Summary: Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have weight and height deficiency through development and may benefit from growth hormone treatment. Standards/guidelines should be developed on a country/region basis throughout Latin America. © 2011 Boguszewski et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tijet N.,Public Health England | Andres P.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | Chung C.,Public Health England | Lucero C.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | And 70 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The first allele of a 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, rmtD2, conferring very high resistance to all clinically available aminoglycosides, was detected in 7/1,064 enterobacteria collected in 2007. rmtD2 was located on a conjugative plasmid in a Tn2670-like element inside a structure similar to that of rmtD1 but probably having an independent assembly. rmtD2 has been found since 1996 to 1998 mainly in Enterobacter and Citrobacter isolates, suggesting a possible reservoir in these genera. This presumption deserves monitoring by continuous surveillance. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Borzych D.,Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine | Borzych D.,Medical University of Gdansk | Rees L.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust | Ha I.S.,Seoul National University | And 18 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2010

The mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease remains a challenging complication in pediatric end-stage renal disease. Here, we assessed symptoms, risk factors and management of this disorder in 890 children and adolescents from 24 countries reported to the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry. Signs of this disease were most common in North American patients. The prevalence of hyperphosphatemia increased with age from 6% in young infants to 81% in adolescents. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was outside the guideline targets in the majority of patients and associated with low calcium, high phosphorus, acidosis, dialysis vintage and female gender. Serum calcium was associated with dialytic calcium exposure, serum phosphorus with low residual renal function and pubertal status. PTH levels were highest in Latin America and lowest in Europe. Vitamin D and its active analogs were most frequently administered in Europe; calcium-free phosphate binders and cinacalcet in North America. Clinical and radiological symptoms markedly increased when PTH exceeded 300 pg/ml, the risk of hypercalcemia increased with levels below 100 pg/ml, and time-averaged PTH concentrations above 500 pg/ml were associated with impaired longitudinal growth. Hence, the symptoms and management of the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease in children on peritoneal dialysis showed substantial regional variation. Our findings support a PTH target range of 100-300 pg/ml in the pediatric age group. © 2010 International Society of Nephrology.

Juanes M.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Guercio G.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Marino R.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Berensztein E.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Background IGF1R gene mutations have been associated with varying degrees of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, and microcephaly. Objective To identify and characterize IGF1R gene variations in a cohort of 28 Argentinean children suspected of having IGF-1 insensitivity, who were selected on the basis of the association of pre/postnatal growth failure and microcephaly. Methods The coding sequence and flanking intronic regions of IGF1R gene were amplified and directly sequenced. Functional characterization was performed by two in vitro assays: 1) [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA in fibroblast cell primary cultures from patients and controls treated with IGF-1 for 16-24 h. 2) PI3K/Akt pathway was evaluated with phospho-Akt (Ser473) STAR ELISA Kit (Millipore) in fibroblast cultures from patients and controls stimulated with IGF-1 for 10 min. Prepubertal clinical and GH-IGF-1 axis evaluation was followed up. Results We identified three novel heterozygous missense mutations in three unrelated patients, de novo p.Arg1256Ser, de novo p.Asn359Tyr and p.Tyr865Cys. In control cells, proliferation assay showed that IGF-1 significantly induced DNA synthesis at 20 h and Akt phosphorylation assay that it significantly stimulated phosphorylation after 10 min (P < 0·05 by anova and Bonferroni Tests). However, no significant increase was observed in any of the three patient fibroblasts in both functional studies. GH therapy growth response in two patients was inconsistent. Conclusion These variations led to failure of the IGF1R function causing pre- and postnatal growth retardation and microcephaly. Microcephaly should be considered in the evaluation of SGA patients, because it seems to favour the frequency of detection of IGF1R mutations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gil S.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Vaiani E.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Guercio G.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | Ciaccio M.,Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2012

Background Growth retardation is a considerable clinical problem in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Optimization of metabolic and nutritional parameters does not always lead to improved growth. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment has been used to improve height. Several studies in the literature have shown increased growth velocity, although data on the final height (FH) reached are scarce. Aims We assessed the effect of rhGH on FH standard deviation score (SDS) in children with CKD following renal transplantation (RTx), comparing it with patients who did not receive rhGH (control group) but were treated with the same protocol and followed up in a single Center. Methods Thirty-three patients received rhGH treatment until FH. Fourteen who refused rhGH therapy were included in the controls. Prognostic factors for FH and changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during follow-up were also analyzed Results FH SDS in rhGH-treated patients was significantly higher than in controls (-1.88±1.14 vs -3.48±1.19 SDS, respectively, p <0.05). In both groups, a similar reduction in GFR was observed. Height (SDS) at onset of rhGH treatment was the only statistically significant variable useful to predict response to treatment (p=0.001). Conclusion Our findings confirm that rhGH is effective to improve FH in CKD RTx patients, without affecting kidney function. © IPNA 2012.

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