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Curitiba, Brazil

Interventional: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved. Source

Current medical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires special attention to different comorbidities that often are associated with hyperglycemia, such as overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular or macrovascular complications, etc. The control of these factors risk to health is as important as the glucose control in diabetes type 2, it is essential for the antidiabetes drugs consider these risk factors. The consensus statement published by the ADA/EASD and AACE emphasizes that the potential effects of antidiabetes medications on CV risk factors besides hyperglycemia (ie, overweight/obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) should be considered in pharmacotherapy selection. Since T2DM is a progressive disease with worsening HbA1C values over time, monotherapy, even with different agents, will eventually fail to maintain the glycemic target. Because insulin resistance occurs in a variety of organs and tissues, many patients may achieve fasting glycemic control but develop postprandial hyperglycemia. Other issues include the risk for hypoglycaemia or weight gain with traditional glucose-lowering medications. The AACE/ACE algorithm for glycemic control is structured according to categories of HbA1C and suggests an HbA1C goal of ≤6.5%, although that may not be appropriate for all patients.42 The algorithm recommends monotherapy, dual therapy, or triple therapy based on initial HbA1C level of 6.5% to 7.5%, 7.6% to 9%, and >9% and reserves initiation of insulin therapy until treatment with oral or other injectable agents has failed. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are novel options to improve glycemic control and reduce the incidence of weight gain. Combination therapy with newer and traditional agents improves glycemic control with a low incidence of hypoglycemia. Source

Niederman M.S.,Winthrop University | Niederman M.S.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Luna C.M.,Hospital de Clinicas | Luna C.M.,University of Buenos Aires
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and since 1993, guidelines for management have been available. The process, which first began in the United States and Canada, has now been implemented in numerous countries throughout the world, and often each geographic region or country develops locally specific recommendations. It is interesting to realize that guidelines from different regions often interpret the same evidence base differently, and guidelines differ from one country to another, even though the bacteriology of CAP is often more similar than different from one region to another. One of the unique contributions of the 2007 US guidelines is the inclusion of quality and performance measures. In addition, US guidelines emphasize management principles that differ from some of the principles in European guidelines because of unique epidemiological considerations. In addition, certain therapy principles apply in the United States that differ from those in other regions, including the need for all patients to receive routine therapy for atypical pathogens, the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in some patients following influenza, and the need for all patients admitted to the intensive care unit to receive at least two antimicrobial agents. In the future, as guidelines evolve, there will be an important place for regional guidelines, particularly if these guidelines can recommend locally specific strategies to implement guidelines, which if successful, can lead to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Sandiumenge A.,Joan University Hospital | Lisboa T.,Hospital de Clinicas | Gomez F.,Joan University Hospital | Hernandez P.,Joan University Hospital | And 2 more authors.

Background: The aim of this study was to test in the clinic whether antimicrobial diversity affects resistance of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE) pathogens in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: Three different strategies of empirical antimicrobial prescription for VAP were consecutively implemented in an ICU: patient specific (10 months); scheduling, including sequential quarterly prioritization (12 months) and restriction (12 months) of antimicrobials; and mixing (10 months). Periods were compared, measuring the antimicrobial heterogeneity index (AHI). Incidence and resistance patterns of VAP caused by ESKAPE were compared. Results: Overall, 127 microbiologic VAP episodes were documented. ESKAPE VAP increased significantly during scheduling (AHI, 0.65) compared with patient-specific (AHI, 0.88) and mixing (AHI, 0.87) periods (relative risk, 2.67 and 3.84, respectively). This finding was associated with a significant(P < .05) increase of carbapenem-resistant A baumannii during the scheduling period (15.0%) compared with the patient-specific (2.4%) and mixing (0%) periods. ICU mortality of resistant patients with ESKAPE VAP was doubled that of patients without ESKAPE VAP (relative risk, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-9.48). Thirty-day mechanical ventilation-free days was significantly increased (5 days) in patients with resistant ESKAPE VAP. Conclusions: Antibiotic strategies promoting diversity may prevent the emergence of resistance of ESKAPE organisms, improving use of health-care resources. © 2011 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

Zetola V.F.,Hospital de Clinicas
Perspectives in Medicine

Stroke is an important complication of sickle cell disease. Approximately twentyfour percent of patients have a stroke by the age of 45. Blood transfusions decrease stroke risk in patients deemed at high risk by transcranial Doppler (TCD) by evidence of elevated intracranial internal carotid or middle cerebral artery velocity. This review describes the practical procedure of patient evaluation and illustrates, through Brazilian guidelines, the importance of uniform methodology in a setting with high prevalence of this disease. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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