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Chopra R.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hartmann J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Paulides M.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Sousa-Escandon A.,Hospital Comarcal de Monforte | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2016

The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause artefacts for most non-invasive thermometry methods, and require additional efforts in planning accurate thermal treatment of bladder cancer. We give an overview of the thermometry methods currently used and investigated for hyperthermia treatments of bladder cancer, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages within the context of the specific disease (muscle-invasive or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) and the heating technique used. The role of treatment simulation to determine the thermal dose delivered is also discussed. Generally speaking, invasive measurement methods are more accurate than non-invasive methods, but provide more limited spatial information; therefore, a combination of both is desirable, preferably supplemented by simulations. Current efforts at research and clinical centres continue to improve non-invasive thermometry methods and the reliability of treatment planning and control software. Due to the challenges in measuring temperature across the non-stationary bladder wall and surrounding tissues, more research is needed to increase our knowledge about the penetration depth and typical heating pattern of the various hyperthermia devices, in order to further improve treatments. The ability to better determine the delivered thermal dose will enable clinicians to investigate the optimal treatment parameters, and consequentially, to give better controlled, thus even more reliable and effective, thermal treatments. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Sousa A.,Hospital Comarcal de Monforte | Inman B.A.,Duke Cancer Institute | Pineiro I.,Hospital Comarcal de Monforte | Monserrat V.,Hospital Comarcal de Monforte | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2014

Purpose: Ths paper reports a pilot/feasibility trial of neoadjuvant hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy (HIVEC) prior to transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Materials and methods: A pilot/feasibility clinical trial was performed and 15 patients with intermediate to high-risk NMIBC received HIVEC prior to TURBT. HIVEC consisting of eight weekly instillations of intravesical MMC (80mg in 50mL) delivered with the novel Combat BRS® system at a temperature of 43°C for 60min. Treatment-related adverse effects were measured and patients were followed for 2 years for disease recurrence. Results: A total of 119 HIVEC treatments occurred. Grade 1 adverse events consisted of irritative bladder symptoms (33%), bladder spasms (27%), pain (27%), haematuria (20%) and urinary tract infection (UTI; 14%). Grade 2 adverse events were bladder calcification (7%) and reduced bladder capacity (7%). No grade 3 or higher toxicity was observed. At TURBT, eight patients (53%) were complete responders (pT0) while seven (47%) were partial responders. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 15%. Conclusions: The Combat BRS® system achieved target bladder temperatures and delivered HIVEC with a favourable side-effect profile. Our pilot trial also provides preliminary evidence of treatment efficacy. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

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