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Marcos-Alberca P.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos | Sanchez-Quintana D.,University of Extremadura | Cabrera J.A.,Hospital Quiro | Farre J.,Cardiac Electrophysiology Unit | And 5 more authors.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2014

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of transthoracic two-dimensional (2D)-echocardiography in defining the cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI) anatomy and its value concerning the ease of catheter ablation of isthmic atrial flutter (AF).MethodsCTI analysis was accomplished in 39 cases: 16 necropsy specimens and 23 patients. Sixteen were patients with isthmus-dependent AF and seven controls with other supraventricular re-entrant tachycardias. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and a right atrium angiogram were performed before radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA).ResultsThe measurements of the CTI with angiography were compared with those taken with echocardiography and correlation was excellent (r= 0.91; P < 0.0001). In normal patients, the dimension of the vestibular thickness was successfully compared and validated with the histological examination of the necropsy specimens: histology median 6.8 mm, range 4.4-10.5 vs. echo median 6.2 mm, range 5.4-8.7; P: NS. Vestibular thickness was greater in complex than in simple RFCA (13.6 ± 1.9 mm vs. 10.0 ± 2.3 mm; P = 0.01). When vestibular thickness ≥11.5 mm, the ablation prone to be complex (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 71.4%, and negative predictive value 88.9%).ConclusionsTwo- dimensional transthoracic echocardiography clearly depicts the inferior isthmus and, displaying the thickness of the tricuspid vestibule, it was related with complexity of the ablation procedure in isthmus-dependent AF. © 2013 The Author.


Quezada M.,Hospital Carlos III | Martin-Carbonero L.,Hospital Carlos III | Soriano V.,Hospital Carlos III | Vispo E.,Hospital Carlos III | And 6 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is uncommon among HIV-positive patients. However, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a noninvasive tool validated for PAH screening. The aim of our study was to establish the prevalence and factors associated with PAH in HIV-infected patients. Methods: Consecutive HIV-infected individuals attended at one HIV reference clinic in Madrid, Spain, during year 2011 were examined. Demographics and clinical data were recorded and a Doppler echocardiography was performed in all individuals. PAH was considered when right ventricular pressure was more than 35 mmHg (mild if <40 mmHg, moderate if 40-65 mmHg, and severe if >65 mmHg). Results: Three hundred and ninety-two individuals were examined (83.4% men, median age 47 years, 53% were men who have sex with men and 53% former intravenous drug addicts). Overall, 84% were on HAART, 76% had undetectable HIV viral load and median CD4 cell counts were 577 cells/μl. Cardiovascular risk factors were smoking 50%, arterial hypertension 16% and diabetes mellitus 9%. A total of 28.5 and 4.8% had chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and 4.8% chronic hepatitis B, respectively. PAH was diagnosed in 9.9% of patients (6.4% mild, 2.8% moderate and 0.8% severe). Multivariate logistic regression analysis [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)] showed that detectable plasma HIV-RNA [OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.04-10], CHC [OR, 3.1; 95% CI 1.2-8.2] and female sex [OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.04-8.3] were independently associated with PAH. Conclusion: The prevalence of PAH HIV-infected patients on regular follow-up approaches 10%, being moderate-severe in nearly 4% of cases. Patients with CHC and/or uncontrolled HIV replication exhibit a higher risk of PAH. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Nieto J.M.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos | Villegas A.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos | De La Fuente-Gonzalo F.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos | Gonzalez F.A.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos | Ropero P.,Hospital Clynico San Carlos
Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

The locus control region (LCR) is a genetic region that regulates the expression of the β-globin locus (HBB locus). This region is composed of several DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) in which the regulatory functions of the LCR may reside. To date, some individuals bearing deletions of several HSs or even the complete LCR have been described. Although the globin genes of the HBB locus are intact, most of these patients suffer thalassemia due to the reduced expression of such genes. The LCR and the HSs forming it have been thoroughly studied in different genetic models. However, seemingly contradictory results are often obtained. Here, we describe the first deletion found in humans exclusively affecting the HS3 element of the LCR. The adult carrying this deletion shows very mild hematological modifications, indicating that HS3 deletion does not severely impair the β-gene expression. Our results also reveal limitations of the murine models when studying the native mouse genes for understanding human diseases like thalassemias. © 2014 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved 1434-5161/14.

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