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Sanchez-de la Rosa R.,Teva Pharmaceutical Industries | Garcia-Bujalance L.,Teva Pharmaceutical Industries | Meca-Lallana J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Health Economics Review | Year: 2015

Objective: The Escala Study evidenced that the administration of glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis improved the spasticity of patients previously treated with interferon-β. However, whether such an improvement was translated into cost savings remained unclear. We therefore conducted a cost analysis of glatiramer acetate versus interferon-β in these patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. Methods: This cost analysis encompassed data from the observational Escala Study, which included patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and spasticity whose treatment had been switched from interferon-β to glatiramer acetate. Costs prior to starting glatiramer acetate (interferon-β period) were compared to the subsequent six months on glatiramer acetate (glatiramer acetate period). The analysis was carried out following the recommendations for conducting pharmacoeconomic studies and from the Spanish National Health System perspective. Costs associated with multiple sclerosis treatment, spasticity treatment and relapse management were expressed in 2014 euros (€); a 7.5 % discount was applied—when needed—as stipulated in Spanish law. Results: The management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, spasticity and relapses accounted for a 6-month cost per patient of 7,078.02€ when using interferon-β and 4,671.31€ when using glatiramer acetate. Switching from interferon-β to glatiramer acetate therefore represented a cost saving of 2,406.72€ per patient in favour of glatiramer acetate, which resulted from savings in treatment costs, relapse management and spasticity treatment of 1,890.02€, 430.48€ and 86.21€, respectively. The ratio of the costs during interferon-β was 1.5 times the costs during glatiramer acetate; thus, a fixed budget of 5,000,000€ would enable 1,070 patients to be treated with glatiramer acetate and only 706 patients with interferon-β. Conclusions: The treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with glatiramer acetate entailed cost savings when compared to interferon-β in patients with spasticity, which not only resulted from its lower costs of therapy and relapse management but also from its favourable effect on reducing spasticity. Thus, glatiramer acetate may be regarded as a more efficient alternative than interferon-β from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. © 2015, Sánchez-de la Rosa et al. Source

Hernandez-Palazon J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND:: The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. METHODS:: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation. Fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count were simultaneously measured intraoperatively with ROTEM for EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM analysis. ROTEM parameters were: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and α-angle. RESULTS:: No significant differences between groups were found in ROTEM variables CT, CFT, MCF, α-angle (EXTEM and INTEM), and MCF (FIBTEM) nor standard coagulation tests. ROTEM parameters did not show changes after administration of hyperosmolar solutions relating to basal values, except for an increase of CFT EXTEM (118±28 vs. 128±26 s) and decrease of CT INTEM (160±18 vs. 148±15 s) with values within normal range. Significant decreases from baseline levels were observed for hematocrit (−7%), platelet count (−10%), and fibrinogen (−13%) after HS infusion, and hematocrit (−9%), platelet count (−13%), and fibrinogen (−9%) after mannitol infusion, but remaining normal. CONCLUSIONS:: The use of 5 mL/kg of equiosmolar solutions of 3% HS and 20% mannitol applied to reach a brain relaxation during elective craniotomy does not induce coagulation impairment as evidenced by ROTEM and standard coagulation tests. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved Source

Pinero-Madrona A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Revisiones en Cancer | Year: 2015

Surgical treatment of the breast cancer is still a basic element in the management of this disease although, currently, it is ununderstandable without a multidisciplinary approach. Similarly, the more radical first surgeries have been replaced by more conservative techniques, supported by adjuvant systemic or locoregional treatments that allowed equivalent survival rates with much less secondary morbidity. As in the case of primary tumor treatment, axillary treatment has also become more conservative using the selective biopsy of the sentinel node as diagnostic procedure. This allows, besides avoiding unnecessary lymphadenectomy, a more effective and efficient staging of the disease and a better selection of adjuvant treatments. Copyright © 2015 ARAN EDICIONES, S.L. Source

Martin-Sanchez F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a critical regulator of the inflammatory response. IL-1β is not secreted through the conventional ER–Golgi route of protein secretion, and to date its mechanism of release has been unknown. Crucially, its secretion depends upon the processing of a precursor form following the activation of the multimolecular inflammasome complex. Using a novel and reversible pharmacological inhibitor of the IL-1β release process, in combination with biochemical, biophysical, and real-time single-cell confocal microscopy with macrophage cells expressing Venus-labelled IL-1β, we have discovered that the secretion of IL-1β after inflammasome activation requires membrane permeabilisation, and occurs in parallel with the death of the secreting cell. Thus, in macrophages the release of IL-1β in response to inflammasome activation appears to be a secretory process independent of nonspecific leakage of proteins during cell death. The mechanism of membrane permeabilisation leading to IL-1β release is distinct from the unconventional secretory mechanism employed by its structural homologues fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) or IL-1α, a process that involves the formation of membrane pores but does not result in cell death. These discoveries reveal key processes at the initiation of an inflammatory response and deliver new insights into the mechanisms of protein release.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 12 February 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.176. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Guillen-Navarro E.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca | Domingo-Jimenez M.R.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca | Alcalde-Martin C.,Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega | Cancho-Candela R.,Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega | And 3 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an inherited X-linked disease associated with a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate 2-sulfatase due to iduronate 2-sulfatase gene (IDS) mutations. Recent studies in MPS II carriers did not find clinical involvement, but these were mainly performed by anamnesis and patients' self-reported description of signs and symptoms. So although it is rare in heterozygous carriers, investigations in other types of inherited X-linked disorders suggest that some clinical manifestations may be a possibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical pattern in female carriers of MPS II and to determine whether clinical symptoms were associated with the X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern and age. Methods. Female carriers of MPS II were genetically identified by molecular analysis of IDS. The clinical evaluation protocol included pedigree analysis, a comprehensive anamnesis, complete physical examination, ophthalmological evaluation, brain-evoked auditory response, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, pulmonary function tests, abdominal sonogram, skeletal survey, neurophysiological studies, blood cell counts and biochemistry, urine glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) quantification, karyotype and pattern of XCI. Results: Ten women were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 ± 13.1 years. Six carriers presented a skewed XCI pattern, 3 of whom (aged 38, 42 and 52 years) had increased levels of GAGs in the urine and showed typical MPS II clinical manifestations, such as skeletal anomalies, liver abnormalities, carpal tunnel syndrome, recurrent ear infection, hypoacusia and more frequent severe odontological problems without coarse facial features. Conclusions: This is the first study performing a comprehensive evaluation of heterozygous MPS II carriers. Our results provide evidence of possible progressive, age-dependent, mild clinical manifestations in MPS II female carriers with a skewed XCI pattern, most likely affecting the normal allele. Further comparative studies with systematized clinical examinations in larger age-stratified populations of MPS II female carriers are required. © 2013 Guillén-Navarro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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