Ono A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2017
High-quality colonoscopy is mandatory to prevent adenoma recurrence and colorectal cancer. In the past few years, technical advances have been developed with the purpose of improving adenoma detection rate (ADR), one of the most important validated colonoscopy quality benchmarks. Several techniques or devices are used to optimize visualization: observation techniques; add-on devices; auxiliary imaging devices; colonoscopes with increased field of view; and colonoscopes with an integrated inflatable reusable balloon. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) facilitates the detection and characterization of polyps and especially nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms. Indigo carmine is the most frequently used dye in colonoscopy as it deposits in depressed areas, improving detection of flat and depressed lesions. Virtual chromoendoscopy has emerged as an effective contrast enhancement technology without the limitation of preparing dyes and applying them through the colonoscope working channel. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) enhances the capillary pattern and surface of the mucosa using optical filters, and second-generation NBI provides a twofold brighter image than the previous system, yielding promising ADR results. Moreover, a second-generation blue laser imaging system, LASEREO, has been reported to improve not only polyp detection rate but also ADR, becoming a promising IEE modality. Herein, we describe technical advances in colonoscopy imaging and their effect on ADR. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
de Torre-Minguela C.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
del Castillo P.M.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Pelegrin P.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2017
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that critically control different aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Among them we could highlight the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that induce and maintain the inflammatory response. Usually, inflammasomes result from oligomerization of a nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor (NLR) after sensing different pathogenic or endogenous sterile dangerous signals; however, other proteins such as absent in melanoma 2, retinoic acid-inducible gene I, or pyrin could also form inflammasome platforms. Inflammasome oligomerization leads to caspase-1 activation and the processing and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. Mutations in different inflammasomes are causative for multiple periodic hereditary syndromes or autoinflammatory diseases, characterized by acute systemic inflammatory flares not associated with infections, tumors, or autoimmunity. This review focuses on germline mutations that have been described in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) for NLRP3 or in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND) for MEFV. Besides the implication of inflammasomes in autoinflammatory syndromes, these molecular platforms are involved in the pathophysiology of different illnesses, including chronic inflammatory diseases, degenerative processes, fibrosis, or metabolic diseases. Therefore, drug development targeting inflammasome activation is a promising field in expansion. © 2017 de Torre-Minguela, Mesa del Castillo and Pelegrín.
Gonzalez-Lopez A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Vera-Sanchez J.A.,Servicio Of Proteccion Radiologica sica Medica Hospital Universitari Sant Joan Of Reus |
Ruiz-Morales C.,Hospital IMED Elche
Medical physics | Year: 2016
PURPOSE: This note studies the statistical relationships between color channels in radiochromic film readings with flatbed scanners. The same relationships are studied for noise. Finally, their implications for multichannel film dosimetry are discussed.METHODS: Radiochromic films exposed to wedged fields of 6 MV energy were read in a flatbed scanner. The joint histograms of pairs of color channels were used to obtain the joint and conditional probability density functions between channels. Then, the conditional expectations and variances of one channel given another channel were obtained. Noise was extracted from film readings by means of a multiresolution analysis. Two different dose ranges were analyzed, the first one ranging from 112 to 473 cGy and the second one from 52 to 1290 cGy.RESULTS: For the smallest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel can be approximated by linear functions, while the conditional variances are fairly constant. The slopes of the linear relationships between channels can be used to simplify the expression that estimates the dose by means of the multichannel method. The slopes of the linear relationships between each channel and the red one can also be interpreted as weights in the final contribution to dose estimation. However, for the largest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel are no longer linear functions. Finally, noises in different channels were found to correlate weakly.CONCLUSIONS: Signals present in different channels of radiochromic film readings show a strong statistical dependence. By contrast, noise correlates weakly between channels. For the smallest dose range analyzed, the linear behavior between the conditional expectation of one channel given another channel can be used to simplify calculations in multichannel film dosimetry.
Montoro-Garcia S.,University of Birmingham |
Montoro-Garcia S.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Shantsila E.,University of Birmingham |
Hernandez-Romero D.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2014
This study aimed to examine the mechanisms of cellular activation by small-size platelet microparticles (sPMP) and to present the performance of high-resolution flow cytometry for the analysis of subcellular entities from different origins. Plasma counts of sPMP were analysed in coronary artery disease patients (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 40). The effect of sPMP and platelet debris (PD) in pathophysiologically relevant doses on platelet and monocyte activation parameters and thrombogenesis was investigated via flow cytometry and thromboelastometry. New generation flow cytometry identifies differences in size, levels and surface molecules of sPMP derived in the absence of stimulus, thrombin activation and platelet disruption. Addition of sPMP resulted in platelet degranulation and P-selectin redistribution to the membrane (P = 0·019) in a dose and time-dependent manner. Blood clotting time decreased after addition of sPMP (P = 0·005), but was not affected by PD. Blocking P-selectin (CD62P) in sPMP markedly reverted the effect on thrombus kinetics (P = 0·035). Exposure to sPMP stimulated monocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P < 0·03) and decreased monocyte interleukin-6 receptor density (P < 0·01). These results implicate sPMP as a direct source of downstream platelet and monocyte activation. In pathological coronary artery disease conditions, higher levels of sPMP favour a prothrombotic state, partly through P-selectin expression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hernandez-Palazon J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND:: The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. METHODS:: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation. Fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count were simultaneously measured intraoperatively with ROTEM for EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM analysis. ROTEM parameters were: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and α-angle. RESULTS:: No significant differences between groups were found in ROTEM variables CT, CFT, MCF, α-angle (EXTEM and INTEM), and MCF (FIBTEM) nor standard coagulation tests. ROTEM parameters did not show changes after administration of hyperosmolar solutions relating to basal values, except for an increase of CFT EXTEM (118±28 vs. 128±26 s) and decrease of CT INTEM (160±18 vs. 148±15 s) with values within normal range. Significant decreases from baseline levels were observed for hematocrit (−7%), platelet count (−10%), and fibrinogen (−13%) after HS infusion, and hematocrit (−9%), platelet count (−13%), and fibrinogen (−9%) after mannitol infusion, but remaining normal. CONCLUSIONS:: The use of 5 mL/kg of equiosmolar solutions of 3% HS and 20% mannitol applied to reach a brain relaxation during elective craniotomy does not induce coagulation impairment as evidenced by ROTEM and standard coagulation tests. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved
Pinero-Madrona A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Revisiones en Cancer | Year: 2015
Surgical treatment of the breast cancer is still a basic element in the management of this disease although, currently, it is ununderstandable without a multidisciplinary approach. Similarly, the more radical first surgeries have been replaced by more conservative techniques, supported by adjuvant systemic or locoregional treatments that allowed equivalent survival rates with much less secondary morbidity. As in the case of primary tumor treatment, axillary treatment has also become more conservative using the selective biopsy of the sentinel node as diagnostic procedure. This allows, besides avoiding unnecessary lymphadenectomy, a more effective and efficient staging of the disease and a better selection of adjuvant treatments. Copyright © 2015 ARAN EDICIONES, S.L.
Cascales-Campos P.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Gil J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Feliciangeli E.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Parrilla P.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2015
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in western countries. The absence of an effective screening program as well as specific symptoms, makes the diagnosis difficult and often made in advanced stages of the disease, in the presence of peritoneal dissemination. The complete cytoreduction of the disease and tumor sensitivity to systemic chemotherapy based on platinums, are the two main prognostic factors. However in patients with complete cytoreduction the recurrence rate is high. The microscopic component of the disease at the end of the cytoreduction is responsible for these recurrences and the use of intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the same time of surgery has been proposed as a reasonable therapeutic option for treatment. However, the absence of sufficient levels of scientific evidence to support the use of HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer with peritoneal dissemination does not allow a general recommendation outside of clinical trials. The main objective of this study is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of HIPEC treatment in ovarian cancer with peritoneal dissemination, and to know which points can be improved in the future. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Egea-Valenzuela J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Alberca-de-las-Parras F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Carballo-Alvarez F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas | Year: 2015
Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule endoscopy in study for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. All of them had a determination of fecal calprotectin and had been sent to colonoscopy with no findings. Patients have been divided in groups: A, fecal calprotectin < 50 μg/g; B, fecal calprotectin: 50-100 μg/g; C, fecal calprotectin > 100 μg/g, and we have analyzed which of them presented inflammatory lesions in capsule endoscopy studies. Results: The rate of patients with signi ficative lesions was 1 out of 10 (10%) in group A, 6 out of 24 (25%) in group B, and 21 out of 34 (62%) in group C. If we consider levels over 50 μg/g pathologic, fecal calprotectin presents sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 23%, NPV: 90% and PPV: 56%. If we consider levels over 100 μg/g pathologic these values are sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 67%, NPV: 79% and PPV: 62%. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin has high sensitivity but not so good specificity for predicting small bowel lesions after a normal colonoscopy. In daily practice it will be more useful to establish in 100 μg/g the limit to indicate capsule endoscopy studies. © 2015 Arán Ediciones, S. L.
Martin-Sanchez F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a critical regulator of the inflammatory response. IL-1β is not secreted through the conventional ER–Golgi route of protein secretion, and to date its mechanism of release has been unknown. Crucially, its secretion depends upon the processing of a precursor form following the activation of the multimolecular inflammasome complex. Using a novel and reversible pharmacological inhibitor of the IL-1β release process, in combination with biochemical, biophysical, and real-time single-cell confocal microscopy with macrophage cells expressing Venus-labelled IL-1β, we have discovered that the secretion of IL-1β after inflammasome activation requires membrane permeabilisation, and occurs in parallel with the death of the secreting cell. Thus, in macrophages the release of IL-1β in response to inflammasome activation appears to be a secretory process independent of nonspecific leakage of proteins during cell death. The mechanism of membrane permeabilisation leading to IL-1β release is distinct from the unconventional secretory mechanism employed by its structural homologues fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) or IL-1α, a process that involves the formation of membrane pores but does not result in cell death. These discoveries reveal key processes at the initiation of an inflammatory response and deliver new insights into the mechanisms of protein release.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 12 February 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.176. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited
Lopez-Picazo Ferrer J.J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca |
Tomas Garcia N.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca
Cirugia Espanola | Year: 2016
Introduction: The information contained in a good informed consent form (ICF) must be understood by the patients. The aim of this study is to assess and improve the readability of the ICF submitted for accreditation in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Study of assessment and improvement of the quality of 132 ICF from 2 departments of a public tertiary hospital, divided into 3 phases: Initial assessment, intervention and reassessment. Both length and readability are assessed. Length is measured in words (adequate to 470, excessive over 940), and readability in INFLESZ points (suitable if over 55). The ICF contents initially proposed by departments were adapted by non-health-related trained persons, whose doubts about medical terms were resolved by the authors. To compare results between evaluations, relative improvement (in both length and INFLESZ) and statistical significances were calculated. Results: Baseline data: 78.8% of the ICFs showed a desired length (CI95% 86,5-71,1) and a mean of 44.1 INFLESZ points (3.8% >55 points, CI95% 6,0-1,6). After the intervention, INFLESZ raised to 61.9 points (improvement 40.3%, P<.001), all ICF showing >55 points. The resulting ICFs had a longer description of the nature of the procedure (P<.0001) and a shorter description of their consequences, risks (P <.0001) and alternatives (P <.05). Conclusions: The introduction of improvement dynamics in the design of ICFs is possible and necessary because it produces more effective and easily readable ICFs. © 2015 AEC.