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Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Viso E.,Complexo Hospitalario de Pontevedra | Rodriguez-Ares M.T.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gude F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago
Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and to investigate its relationship with systemic and ocular diseases and lifestyle factors in a general adult population in north-western Spain. Methods: An age-stratified random sample of 1155 subjects was drawn from the population aged 40 years and over of O Salnés (Spain). From 937 eligible subjects, 619 (66.1%) participated (mean age (Standard Deviation [SD]): 63.4 (14.5) years, range: 40-96, 37.0% males). An interview to collect past history of ocular and systemic diseases and lifestyle details, and a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation were performed. Study subjects with typical pseudoexfoliative material on the anterior capsule or in the pupil margin were labelled as having PXF. A design based analysis was performed and all calculations were weighted to give unbiased estimates. Results: The prevalence of PXF was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]:4.9-8.1). PXF rates increased significantly with age (P = 0.000). No cases of PXF were detected in subjects between 40 and 60 years. Prevalence of PXF was 8.0% (95% C I5.4-11.6) in men and 5.4% (95% CI 3.8-7.6) in women (P = ns). The prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with PXF was 19.6% (95% CI 8.2-40.0). After controlling for age and sex, glaucoma, cataract surgery, rose bengal staining and diabetes were associated with PXF but only glaucoma and rose bengal staining associations remained significant in a multivariate model. Conclusions: PXF is common among older individuals in north-western Spain. Subjects with pseudoexfoliation have a significantly higher prevalence of glaucoma than subjects without. An abnormal ocular surface detected by rose bengal staining is highly prevalent among subjects with pseudoexfoliation. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Barreiro-De Acosta M.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago
Medicine (Spain)

Introduction Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease unknown origin whose main symptoms of chronic diarrhea and the presence of rectal bleeding. Clinical course In its course alternating periods of remission and activity (flares), although a minority can have a fulminant course and, in others, present a chronic continuous activity. It can affect the rectum, the left colon or substantially all of the colon (large). Complications Local complications include toxic megacolon, bleeding, perforation and cancer. Diagnosis In its diagnosis mainly we employ colonoscopy biopsias. La intensity of flares can be variable, and it depends on the treatment. Treatment Oral and rectal aminosalicylates are the mainstay of treatment in mild forms. Corticosteroids are used only in acute phases. Immunosuppressive and biologic therapies are used in the most severe forms. Sometimes surgery at the failure of medical treatment will be necessary. Source

Guglielmi O.,Sleep Unit | Jurado-Gamez B.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Gude F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Buela-Casal G.,Sleep Unit
Sleep and Breathing

Purpose: The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on patients’ occupational health. Methods: We selected 19 studies that dealt with issues related to job performance and productivity, absenteeism, and psychosocial health of patients with OSAS and assessed the risk of bias in their conclusions. Results: Although methodologically rigorous studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results obtained suggest the existence of multiple relationships between OSAS and work limitations of patients (i.e., difficulties maintaining attention, learning new tasks, or performing monotonous tasks). The studies reviewed reached more scientifically consistent conclusions about such patients’ risk of taking more days of sick leave or having work disability, particularly if they reported excessive daytime sleepiness. Very few studies have explored the relationship between OSAS and psychosocial occupational health of patients. Thus, there is a need for research to clarify these aspects of occupational medicine. Conclusions: OSAS has numerous effects on patients’ occupational health, yet, in general, results should be confirmed by studies with sufficiently large samples in which OSAS is diagnosed with reliable methods and occupational variables are assessed with standardized and validated questionnaires. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Pardo-Seco J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinon-Torres F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinon-Torres F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Salas A.,University of Santiago de Compostela
BMC Genomics

Background: There is a growing interest among geneticists in developing panels of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) aimed at measuring the biogeographical ancestry of individual genomes. The efficiency of these panels is commonly tested empirically by contrasting self-reported ancestry with the ancestry estimated from these panels.Results: Using SNP data from HapMap we carried out a simulation-based study aimed at measuring the effect of SNP coverage on the estimation of genome ancestry. For three of the main continental groups (Africans, East Asians, Europeans) ancestry was first estimated using the whole HapMap SNP database as a proxy for global genome ancestry; these estimates were subsequently compared to those obtained from pre-designed AIM panels. Panels that consider >400 AIMs capture genome ancestry reasonably well, while those containing a few dozen AIMs show a large variability in ancestry estimates. Curiously, 500-1,000 SNPs selected at random from the genome provide an unbiased estimate of genome ancestry and perform as well as any AIM panel of similar size. In simulated scenarios of population admixture, panels containing few AIMs also show important deficiencies to measure genome ancestry.Conclusions: The results indicate that the ability to estimate genome ancestry is strongly dependent on the number of AIMs used, and not primarily on their individual informativeness. Caution should be taken when making individual (medical, forensic, or anthropological) inferences based on AIMs. © 2014 Pardo-Seco et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Martinon-Torres F.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Martinon-Torres F.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Journal of Critical Care

Most existing literature on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in combination with helium-oxygen (HELIOX) mixtures focuses on its use in adults, basically for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This article reviews and summarizes the theoretical basis, existing clinical evidence, and practical aspects of the use of NIV with HELIOX in children. There is only a small body of literature on HELIOX in pediatric NIV but with positive results. The reported experience focuses on treatment for patients with severe acute bronchiolitis who cannot be treated with standard therapies. The inert nature of helium adds no biological risk to NIV performance. Noninvasive ventilation with HELIOX is a promising therapeutic option for children with various respiratory pathologies who do not respond to conventional treatment. Further controlled studies should be warranted. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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