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Canivell S.,Hospital Clinic Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer Idibaps | Canivell S.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Gomis R.,Hospital Clinic Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer Idibaps | Gomis R.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Gomis R.,University of Barcelona
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs and burden of the disease are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Two major groups of diabetes mellitus have been defined, type 1, or immune-based, and type 2. In recent years, other subgroups have been described in-between these major groups. Correct classification of the disease is crucial in order to ascribe the most efficient preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies for each patient. In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and clinical classification of what is currently known as autoimmune diabetes. In addition, the other groups of diabetes mellitus will be regarded in relation to their pathogenesis and potential autoimmunity features. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Michael R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Michael R.,Paracelsus Medical University | Otto C.,University of Twente | Lenferink A.,University of Twente | And 6 more authors.
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2014

We have compared the protein profiles in plaques and tangles in the hippocampus of post-mortem Alzheimer brains and in opaque and clear regions in the deep cortex of eye lenses of the same donors. From the 7 Alzheimer donors studied, 1 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities, 1 moderate and 5 only minor or no cortical opacities. We focused on beta-sheet levels, a hallmarking property of amyloid-beta, the major protein of plaques and tau protein, the major protein of tangles in Alzheimer brains. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was used in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis. Plaques and tangles show high levels of beta-sheets with a beta-sheet to protein ratio of 1.67. This ratio is 1.12 in unaffected brain tissue surrounding the plaques and tangles. In the lenses this ratio is 1.17 independently of the presence or absence of opacities. This major difference in beta-sheet conformation between hippocampus and lens is supported by Congo red and immunostaining of amyloid-beta and tau which were positive for plaques and tangles in the hippocampus but fully negative for the lens irrespective of the presence or absence of opacities. In line with a previous study (Michael etal., 2013) we conclude that cortical lens opacities are not typical for Alzheimer patients and are not hallmarked by accumulation of amyloid-beta, and can thus not be considered as predictors or indicators of Alzheimer disease as claimed by Goldstein etal. (2003). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sieira-Gil R.,University of Barcelona | Paredes P.,Hospital Clinic Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer Idibaps | Marti-Pages C.,University of Barcelona | Ferrer-Fuertes A.,University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a multimodality approach to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) detection with lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT). When combined with intraoperative imaging by a portable gamma camera (PGC), improved SLNB accuracy and detection rate may result. Material and methods A total of 42 patients selected for SLNB in node-negative T1 and T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The detection protocol consisted of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection was done with the aid of a PGC in association with hand-held gamma probe. Results All SLN detected in the preoperative study could be harvested except for one case. A total of 131 SLN were resected. This number was higher than the SLN depicted on lymphoscintigraphy (119 SLNs) and SPECT/CT (123 SLNs). Sublingual SLNs were observed in two cases (4.76%). These SLNs were detected by SPECT/CT but not by lymphoscintigraphy. Five (3.8%) additional SLNs not previously visualized on lymphoscintigraphy or on SPECT/CT were detected intraoperatively with the aid of the PGC. Positive SLNs were detected in eight cases (19%). Micrometastases were detected in five cases (62%) and macrometastases in three cases (38%). Conclusion The SLNB detection protocol described contributes to more accurate study and detection. © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zock J.-P.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Zock J.-P.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | Zock J.-P.,CIBER ISCIII | Rodriguez-Trigo G.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | And 19 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed an excess risk of respiratory symptoms 1-2 years later, but the long-term persistence of these health effects is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of these respiratory symptoms 5 years after clean-up work. Methods: Subgroups of 501 fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work and 177 non-exposed individuals were re-interviewed by telephone in 2008, including the same symptom questions as in the initial survey. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory symptoms were assessed using log-binomial and multinomial regression analyses adjusting for sex, age and smoking. Results: Information from 466 exposed (93%) and 156 non-exposed (88%) fishermen was obtained. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms (including wheeze, shortness of breath, cough and phlegm) had slightly decreased in both groups, but remained higher among the exposed (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9). The risk of having persistent respiratory symptoms (reported both at baseline and at follow-up) increased with the degree of exposure: RR ratio 1.7 (95% CI 0.9 to 3.1) and 3.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 6.2) for moderately and highly exposed, respectively, when compared with those without any symptoms. Findings for nasal symptoms and for respiratory medication usage were similar. Conclusions: Participation in clean-up activities of oil spills may result in respiratory symptoms that persist up to 5 years after exposure. Guidelines for preventive measures and a continued surveillance of clean-up workers of oil spills are necessary. Source

Monyarch G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | De Castro Reis F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Zock J.-P.,Institute Of Recerca Hospital Del Mar Imim | Zock J.-P.,CIBER ISCIII | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. Objectives: We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. Methods: Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. Results: Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016). Conclusion: The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure. © 2013 Fuster et al. Source

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