Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS
Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS
PubMed | University of Trento, University of Genoa, University of Barcelona, LENITEM Laboratory of Epidemiology and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human brain mapping | Year: 2016
Free water elimination (FWE) in brain diffusion MRI has been shown to improve tissue specificity in human white matter characterization both in health and in disease. Relative to the classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model, FWE is also expected to increase sensitivity to microstructural changes in longitudinal studies. However, it is not clear if these two models differ in their test-retest reproducibility. This study compares a bi-tensor model for FWE with DTI by extending a previous longitudinal-reproducibility 3T multisite study (10 sites, 7 different scanner models) of 50 healthy elderly participants (55-80 years old) scanned in two sessions at least 1 week apart. We computed the reproducibility of commonly used DTI metrics (FA: fractional anisotropy, MD: mean diffusivity, RD: radial diffusivity, and AXD: axial diffusivity), derived either using a DTI model or a FWE model. The DTI metrics were evaluated over 48 white-matter regions of the JHU-ICBM-DTI-81 white-matter labels atlas, and reproducibility errors were assessed. We found that relative to the DTI model, FWE significantly reduced reproducibility errors in most areas tested. In particular, for the FA and MD metrics, there was an average reduction of approximately 1% in the reproducibility error. The reproducibility scores did not significantly differ across sites. This study shows that FWE improves sensitivity and is thus promising for clinical applications, with the potential to identify more subtle changes. The increased reproducibility allows for smaller sample size or shorter trials in studies evaluating biomarkers of disease progression or treatment effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:12-26, 2017. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Canete J.D.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS |
Hernandez M.V.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS |
Sanmarti R.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2017
Introduction: Biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), abatacept, rituximab and tocilizumab have proven efficacy in RA. However, these agents are also associated with adverse events so further data is essential to detect them at the earliest stage possible. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the safety profile of biological therapy, including TNFi and non-TNF agents including abatacept (ABA), rituximab (RTX) and tocilizumab (TCZ). The authors analyze both published articles and congress communications including clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies, data from registries and spontaneous clinical reports. The authors classify studies according to the most common and relevant adverse events associated with biological agents. Expert opinion: Biological therapies have a reasonable safety profile and, globally, the benefits far outweigh the possible risk of adverse events. Currently, the risk of serious infections is low and no increased risk in solid malignancies or cardiovascular events have been found after a long clinical experience with these therapies. However, there are still potential risks as well as concerns of immunogenicity induced by TNFi. More studies are required to understand these risks, design safer drugs, and implement pharmacogenomics into the clinic. This will lead to a more personalized medicine in the future. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Madrigal I.,CIBER ISCIII |
Madrigal I.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS |
Rodriguez-Revenga L.,CIBER ISCIII |
Rodriguez-Revenga L.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS |
And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012
Genomic rearrangements of chromosome 15q11-q13 are responsible for diverse phenotypes including intellectual disabilities and autism. 15q11.2 deletion, implicating common PWS/AS breakpoints BP1-BP2, has been described in patients with delayed motor and speech development and behavioural problems. Here we report the clinical and molecular characterisation of a maternally inherited BP1-BP2 deletion in two siblings with intellectual, motor and speech delay, autistic syndrome disorder and several dysmorphic features. One of the patients was also a carrier of an FMR1 allele in the low premutation range. The four genes within the deletion were under-expressed in all deletion carriers but FMR1 mRNA levels remained normal. Our results suggest that BP1-BP2 deletion could be considered as a risk factor for neuropsychological phenotypes and that it presents with variable clinical expressivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Madrigal I.,CIBER ISCIII |
Madrigal I.,Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS |
Martinez M.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of Las Nieves |
Rodriguez-Revenga L.,CIBER ISCIII |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2012
Congenital balanced reciprocal translocations are one of the most frequent structural chromosomal aberrations in the population. We report a familial translocation t(12;22)(p13.3;pter) responsible for intellectual disabilities and congenital anomalies characterized by FISH and array CGH. Two patients carried a der(12)t(12;22)(p13.3;pter), resulting in a 6Mb 12pter deletion. Patients presented with intellectual disabilities, pre- and post-natal growth retardation, ponderal development delay, global hypotonia, feeding problems and dysmorphic features. Two relatives presented with the reciprocal 12pter duplication, which had no clinical manifestations associated. For this translocation, we propose a mechanism based on a non-allelic recombination model, in which recombination of direct oriented segmental duplications between non-homologous chromatids leads to the reciprocal translocation. The characterization of this translocation has been critical for the family. Translocation carriers have a risk of 40% of having offspring carrying unbalanced products. 12p13.3 deletion carriers present with a recognizable syndrome and on the contrary, 12p13.3 duplication carriers present without clinical manifestations. Other published cases of 12p13.3 duplication show that this syndrome has a variable phenotype. It is advisable to delineate the duplication size and to discard other genetic aberrations, in order to give an accurate genetic counseling in patients carrying 12pter duplications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | EULAR, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, St Vincents University Hospital, North Devon and 22 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of the rheumatic diseases | Year: 2016
Since the publication of the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in 2012, new evidence and new therapeutic agents have emerged. The objective was to update these recommendations.A systematic literature review was performed regarding pharmacological treatment in PsA. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated based on the evidence and the expert opinion of the 34 Task Force members. Levels of evidence and strengths of recommendations were allocated.The updated recommendations comprise 5 overarching principles and 10 recommendations, covering pharmacological therapies for PsA from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), to conventional synthetic (csDMARD) and biological (bDMARD) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, whatever their mode of action, taking articular and extra-articular manifestations of PsA into account, but focusing on musculoskeletal involvement. The overarching principles address the need for shared decision-making and treatment objectives. The recommendations address csDMARDs as an initial therapy after failure of NSAIDs and local therapy for active disease, followed, if necessary, by a bDMARD or a targeted synthetic DMARD (tsDMARD). The first bDMARD would usually be a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor. bDMARDs targeting interleukin (IL)12/23 (ustekinumab) or IL-17 pathways (secukinumab) may be used in patients for whom TNF inhibitors are inappropriate and a tsDMARD such as a phosphodiesterase 4-inhibitor (apremilast) if bDMARDs are inappropriate. If the first bDMARD strategy fails, any other bDMARD or tsDMARD may be used.These recommendations provide stakeholders with an updated consensus on the pharmacological treatment of PsA and strategies to reach optimal outcomes in PsA, based on a combination of evidence and expert opinion.
PubMed | University Hospitals Leuven, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Paris-Sorbonne University and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Arthritis care & research | Year: 2016
Patient-physician discordance in global assessment of disease activity concerned one third of patients but what does it reflect? We aimed to assess patient-physician discordance in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and patient-reported domains of health (physical and psychological) associated to discordance.The PsAID (Psoriatic Arthritis Impact of Disease) cross-sectional multicenter European study of patients with PsA according to expert opinion was analysed. Patient- and Physician-Global Assessment (PGA and PhGA) were rated with a 0-10 numeric rating scale. Discordance was defined as the difference (PGA-PhGA) and as the absolute difference |PGA-PhGA|3 points. Determinants of (PGA-PhGA) were assessed by a stepwise multivariate linear regression among 12 physical and psychological aspects of impact: pain, skin problems, fatigue, ability to work/leisure, functional incapacity, feeling of discomfort, sleep disturbance, anxiety/fear, coping, embarrassment/shame, social participation and depressive affects.In 460 patients (mean age 50.612.9 years, 52.2% female, mean disease duration 9.59.5 years, mean DAPSA 30.832.4, 40.4% treating by biologics), mean PGA was higher than mean PhGA with a mean absolute difference of 1.91.8 points. Discordance defined by |PGA-PhGA|3/10 concerned 134 (29.1%) patients and 115 (85.8% of patients with discordance) had PGA>PhGA. Higher fatigue (=0.14), lower self-perceived coping (=0.23) and impaired social participation (=0.16) were independently associated with a higher difference (PGA-PhGA).Discordance concerned 29.1% of these patient/physician dyads, mainly by PGA>PhGA. Factors associated with discordance were psychological rather than physical domains of health. Discordance was more frequent in patients in remission, indicating more work is needed on the patient perspective regarding disease activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Medical & Scientific Relations, University of Edinburgh, University Pompeu Fabra, Alzheimer Europe and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association | Year: 2016
Alzheimers disease (AD) is among the most significant health care burdens. Disappointing results from clinical trials in late-stage AD persons combined with hopeful results from trials in persons with early-stage suggest that research in the preclinical stage of AD is necessary to define an optimal therapeutic success window. We review the justification for conducting trials in the preclinical stage and highlight novel ethical challenges that arise and are related to determining appropriate risk-benefit ratios and disclosing individuals biomarker status. We propose that to conduct clinical trials with these participants, we need to improve public understanding of AD using unified vocabulary, resolve the acceptable risk-benefit ratio in asymptomatic participants, and disclose or not biomarker status with attention to study type (observational studies vs clinical trials). Overcoming these challenges will justify clinical trials in preclinical AD at the societal level and aid to the development of societal and legal support for trial participants.
PubMed | University of The Azores, Autonomous University of Barcelona, CINVESTAV, University of Porto and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN | Year: 2016
The polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, caused by CAG expansions in the coding region of the respective genes. Given their considerable clinical overlapping, differential diagnosis relies on molecular testing. Laboratory best practice guidelines for molecular genetic testing of the SCAs were released in 2010 by the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network, following the recognition of gross genotyping errors by some diagnostic laboratories. The main goal of this study was to verify the existence of inter-laboratorial consistency comparing genotypes for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 obtained by independent diagnostic laboratories. The individual impact of different methodological issues on the genotype for the several SCAs was also analysed. Four international collaborative diagnostic laboratories provided 79 samples and the respective SCA genotypes. Samples were genotyped in-house for all SCAs using an independent methodology; comparison of the allele size obtained with the one provided by the collaborative laboratories was performed. Globally, no significant differences were identified, a result which could be reflecting the fulfilment of recommendations for the molecular testing of SCAs and demonstrating an improvement in genotyping accuracy.
PubMed | Hospital Clinic and IDIBAPS
Type: | Journal: Clinical and experimental rheumatology | Year: 2016
To analyse clinical, serological and sonographic differences between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and polyarticular psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients on anti-TNF therapy in clinical remission.Angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine serum levels were determined by multiplex ELISA in patients with RA and PsA in clinical remission (DAS28-ESR<2.6), clinically-active RA patients (DAS28>3.2) and healthy controls. Ultrasound (US) scans were made of both wrists and hands.30 RA and 47 PsA patients in remission, 22 active RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included. PsA patients had significantly lower disease activity according to DAS28-ESR (p=0.006) but not according to DAS28-CRP (p=0.319), and lower serum levels of proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines than RA patients in remission. PsA patients had cytokine levels similar to healthy controls, while RA patients in remission had similar levels to those of active RA patients. Globally, 31 (40.25%) patients in remission had a PD signal and 12 had SH>2 plus PD [1 PsA vs. 11 RA (p=0.0001)], meeting the criteria for ultrasound-defined active synovitis (UdAS). Patients with UdAS had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-20, PIGF and SDF1. More PsA patients were on tapered doses of anti-TNF (63.8%), and more frequently as monotherapy (72.3%), compared with RA patients (26.6% and 20%, respectively).Polyarticular PsA patients in remission had lower levels of local (US synovitis) and systemic inflammation than RA patients in remission, even though a significantly higher percentage of PsA patients were on tapered doses of anti-TNF, mainly in monotherapy.