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CABA, Argentina

The imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure observed in malnourished or frankly undernourished women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea triggers an increased activity of hypothalamic hormones and peripheral neuropeptides, at facilitating the availability of endogenous energy metabolites. Osteoporosis, immune depression, hypothalamic amenorrhea and increased cardiovascular risk can be interpreted as secondary effects of the homeosthatic adaptation reactions by central and peripheral hormones. The extent of somatotropic axis deficiency, hypoestrogenism and time of evolution condition the nature of coronary circulation alterations and myocardial structural and functional involvement. An unfavorable lipid profile (normal LDL/ low HDL and hypertriglyceridemia), the rise in peripheral markers of fibrinolytic and inflammatory processes, results in a proatherosclerotic and prothrombotic environment. A premature presence of atheroma plaques in carotid walls, intima media thickness and subsequent artery stiffness may be frequently observed. This makes blood flow difficult, leading to coronary ischemia and predisposition to stroke. Echocardiographic studies show a decrease in the muscle mass of the left ventricle walls and the interven tricular septum. These structural changes correlate with a volume reduction in the post-stress systolic ejection fraction, which subsequently occurs at rest at rest.The reduction in diastolic filling volume can be observed if the course of the disease is relatively long, showing, a serious compromise of cardiac performance. Even if the incidence of supraventricular extrasystoles, atrial fibrillation and bradycardia is not statistically significant, the presence of such arrhythmias increases CVR and the possibility of potential sudden death. Copyright © 2012 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.

Martinez De Tejada B.,University of Geneva | Karolinski A.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Ocampo M.C.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Laterra C.,Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda | And 29 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2015

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of 200 mg of daily vaginal natural progesterone to prevent preterm birth in women with preterm labour. Design Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Twenty-nine centres in Switzerland and Argentina. Population A total of 385 women with preterm labour (240/7 to 336/7 weeks of gestation) treated with acute tocolysis. Methods Participants were randomly allocated to either 200 mg daily of self-administered vaginal progesterone or placebo within 48 hours of starting acute tocolysis. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 32 and 34 weeks, adverse effects, duration of tocolysis, re-admissions for preterm labour, length of hospital stay, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study was ended prematurely based on results of the intermediate analysis. Results Preterm birth occurred in 42.5% of women in the progesterone group versus 35.5% in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.5). Delivery at <32 and <34 weeks did not differ between the two groups (12.9 versus 9.7%; [RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.5] and 19.7 versus 12.9% [RR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.4], respectively). The duration of tocolysis, hospitalisation, and recurrence of preterm labour were comparable between groups. Neonatal morbidity occurred in 44 (22.8%) cases on progesterone versus 35 (18.8%) cases on placebo (RR: 1.2; 95% CI 0.82-1.8), whereas there were 4 (2%) neonatal deaths in each study group. Conclusion There is no evidence that the daily administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth or improves neonatal outcome in women with preterm labour. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Ruvinsky R.O.,Hospital Carlos G. Durand | Regueira M.,National Institute Of Infectious Diseases Inei Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | Fossati M.S.,National Institute Of Infectious Diseases Inei Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | Gagetti P.,National Institute Of Infectious Diseases Inei Anlis Dr Carlos G Malbran | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a prevalent cause of invasive diseases in children, justifying continuous surveillance programs such as by the SIREVA group (Pan American Health Organization). The aim of this study was to determine the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae causing invasive disease in children < 6 years old, the serotype coverage of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7-valent (PCV7), 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13), and antibiotic resistance, from 1994 to 2007. During this period, 2205 invasive S. pneumoniae were included in the study. Although 49 different capsular types were identified, 12 serotypes accounted for 86% of all isolates. These were prevalent throughout the study period with serotype 14 predominating. Penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was detected in 33.2% of all isolates. The coverage of PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 from 2004 to 2007 for children < 2 years old was 51.7%, 72.4% and 84.5%, respectively. The data demonstrates a decline in serotype 14, and an increase in serotypes 1 and 19A in the study period. Resistance to penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased, while resistance to erythromycin increased. These results demonstrate the need for the introduction of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and continuing surveillance to monitor changes in serotypes distribution and antimicrobial resistance. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Gadelha M.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bronstein M.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Brue T.,Aix - Marseille University | Coculescu M.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy | And 10 more authors.
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Background: Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control despite receiving high doses of the first-generation somatostatin analogues octreotide or lanreotide. In the PAOLA trial, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of two different doses of the somatostatin analogue pasireotide long-acting release compared with active control (octreotide or lanreotide) in patients with inadequately controlled acromegaly. Methods: In a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled eligible patients aged 18 years or older with acromegaly who were inadequately controlled (5-point, 2 h mean growth hormone concentration >2˙5 μg/L and insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] concentration >1˙3 times the upper normal limit) and had received 30 mg octreotide long-acting repeatable or 120 mg lanreotide (Somatuline Autogel; Ipsen, UK) as monotherapy for 6 months or longer. We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1:1 ratio with an interactive voice-web response system to receive 40 mg pasireotide long-acting release once every 28 days for 24 weeks, 60 mg pasireotide long-acting release once every 28 days for 24 weeks, or continued treatment with octreotide or lanreotide (active control). Patients were stratified according to previous treatment (octreotide or lanreotide) and growth hormone concentrations at screening (2˙5-10 μg/L and >10 μg/L). Patients and study investigators were not masked to study drug assignment but were masked to pasireotide dose allocation. The primary endpoint was number of patients achieving biochemical control, defined as mean growth hormone concentration less than 2˙5 μg/L and normalised IGF-1 concentration. Efficacy analyses were based on intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01137682. Findings: Between Dec 17, 2010, and Aug 6, 2012, 198 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to pasireotide 40 mg (n=65), pasireotide 60 mg (n=65), or active control (n=68) groups. At 24 weeks, ten (15%) patients in the pasireotide 40 mg group and 13 (20%) patients in the pasireotide 60 mg group achieved biochemical control, compared with no patients in the active control group (absolute difference from control group 15˙4%, 95% CI 7˙6-26˙5, p=0˙0006 for pasireotide 40 mg group, 20˙0%, 11˙1-31˙8, p<0˙0001 for pasireotide 60 mg group). The most common adverse events were hyperglycaemia (21 [33%] for treatment with 40 mg pasireotide, 19 [31%] with 60 mg pasireotide, and nine [14%] with active control), diabetes (13 [21%], 16 [26%], and five [8%]), and diarrhoea (ten [16%], 12 [19%], and three [5%]); most were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Serious adverse events were reported in six (10%) patients in the pasireotide 40 mg group, two (3%) in the pasireotide 60 mg group, and three (5%) in the active control group. Interpretation: Pasireotide provides superior efficacy compared with continued treatment with octreotide or lanreotide, and could become the new standard pituitary-directed treatment in patients with acromegaly who are inadequately controlled using first-generation somatostatin analogues. Funding: Novartis Pharma AG. Financial support for medical editorial assistance was provided by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Guitelman M.,Hospital Carlos G. Durand | Abreu A.,Centro Medico Imbanaco | Espinosa-De-Los-Monteros A.L.,Centro Medico Nacional SXXI | Mercado M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mercado M.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Pituitary | Year: 2014

Background: Health-related quality of life (QoL) is severely impaired in acromegaly due to the physical and psychological consequences of the disease. Pharmacological and surgical treatments, when available, can improve QoL and life expectancy. Case description: A 34-year-old male with uncontrolled acromegaly due to a large and invasive macroadenoma, which could not be resected by transsphenoidal surgery. Over 9 years, he had limited access to pharmacological interventions and persisted with clinically and biochemically active disease, with severe co-morbidities and a poor QoL, which eventually lead to a premature sudden death. Conclusion: This case highlights the impact that active acromegaly has when treatment resources are limited. We review the factors contributing to poor QoL in this disease, with special reference to the Latin American scenario. © The Author(s) 2013.

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