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Villa Presidente Frei, Chile

Murray N.P.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Murray N.P.,Major University | Murray N.P.,Institute of Bio Oncology | Reyes E.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Introduction. PSA parameters have been used in an attempt to improve the diagnostic yield of prostate screening tests; the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) may improve the diagnostic yield of screening and therefore avoid unnecessary biopsies. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of all men undergoing initial prostate biopsy due to an elevated total serum PSA. Free percent PSA, PSA velocity, and PSA density were determined. Primary CPCs were detected using standard immunocytochemistry. A positive test for CPCs was defined as one cell PSA (+) P504S (+) in an 8 ml blood sample. Positive predictive and negative predictive values, specificity, and sensitivity were calculated for each test as well as the number of biopsies avoided and cancers missed. Results. 303 men participated in the study of whom 113/303 (37.3%) men had prostate cancer. Of the three PSA based parameters, free percent PSA was superior, sensitivity 70.8%, and specificity 67.4%. Primary CPCs detection had a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 88.4% avoiding 181 (59.7%) biopsies, detecting 93/95 (98%) of clinically significant cancers, and missing 13 (11.5%) low grade, small volume tumors. Conclusions. The use of primary CPCs as a sequential test could decrease the number of initial prostate biopsies missing those cancers which are treated by active observation. © 2014 Nigel P. Murray et al. Source


Murray N.P.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Murray N.P.,Major University | Murray N.P.,Institute of Bio Oncology | Reyes E.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective. To determine if primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) are found in all men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. A prospective study, to analyze all men with an elevated PSA between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL undergoing initial biopsy. Primary CPCs were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and detected using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA; positive samples underwent a second process with anti-P504S. A malignant primary CPC was defined as PSA (+) P504S (+) and a test positive if 1 cell/4 mL was detected. Biopsy results were registered as cancer/no-cancer, number of cores positive, and percent infiltration of the cores. Results. 328/1123 (29.2%) of the study population had prostate cancer diagnosed on initial biopsy, and 42/328 (12.8%) were negative for primary CPCs. CPC negative men were significantly older, and had lower PSA levels, lower Gleason scores, and fewer positive cores and with infiltration by the cancer. 38/42 (91%) of CPC negative men complied with the criteria for active surveillance in comparison with 34/286 (12%) of CPC positive men. Conclusions. Using primary CPC detection as a sequential test to select men with an elevated PSA for biopsy, the risk of missing clinically significant prostate cancer is minimal when the patient is primary CPC negative; less than 0.5% of all primary CPC negative men had a clinically significant prostate cancer. © 2014 Nigel P. Murray et al. Source


Murray N.P.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Murray N.P.,Major University | Murray N.P.,Institute of Bio Oncology | Reyes E.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | And 8 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: To determine the frequency of primary circulating prostate cells (CPC) detection according to age and serum PSA levels in a cohort of men undergoing screening for prostate cancer and to determine the diagnostic yield in those men complying with the criteria for prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out to analyze all men evaluated in a hospital prostate cancer screening program. Primary CPCs were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and detected using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA, positive samples undergoing a second process with anti-P504S. A malignant primary CPC was defined as PSA+ P504S+, and a test positive if 1 cell/4ml was detected. The frequency of primary CPC detection was compared with age and serum PSA levels. Men with a PSA > 4.0ng/ml and/or abnormal rectal examination underwent 12 core prostate biopsy, and the results were registered as cancer/no-cancer and compared with the presence/absence of primary CPCs to calculate the diagnostic yield. Results: A total of 1,117 men participated; there was an association of primary CPC detection with increasing age and increasing serum PSA. Some 559 men underwent initial prostate biopsy of whom 207/559 (37.0%) were positive for primary CPCs and 183/559 (32.0%) had prostate cancer detected. The diagnostic yield of primary CPCs had a sensitivity of 88.5%, a specificity of 88.0%, and positive and negative predictive values of 78.3% and 94.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The use of primary CPCs for testing is recommended, since its high negative predictive value could be used to avoid prostate biopsy in men with an elevated PSA and/or abnormal DRE. Men positive for primary CPCs should undergo prostate biopsy. It is a test that could be implemented in the routine immunocytochemical laboratory. Source


Murray N.P.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Murray N.P.,Major University | Murray N.P.,Institute of Bio Oncology | Reyes E.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

The presence of cells positive for cytokeratins or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in bone marrow aspirates (BMAs) has been used to indicate the presence of micrometastasis. The aim of this prospective study of prostate cancer patients was to determine the presence of prostate cells in blood and BMAs and to compare them with bone marrow biopsy touch prep samples. The results indicated that there was a satisfactory concordance between circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in blood and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in BMAs for all Gleason scores (κ>0.50). However, neither were concordant with the presence of prostate cells in bone marrow biopsies except for high-grade tumors, Gleason 8 and 9. Phenotypic characteristics of CPCs and DTCs were identical (κ>0.9) but were different than cells detected in bone marrow biopsies (κ<0.2). The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in bone marrow biopsies was positively associated with the Gleason score (trend Chi-squared <0.05) and may explain the differences between the presence of DTCs and the presence of prostate cells in bone marrow biopsies. If the presence of DTCs was used to indicate micrometastatic disease, 20% of patients would be misclassified compared to micrometastasis defined as patients with a positive biopsy. This may have clinical implications for patients with low-grade tumors. Source


Murray N.P.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Murray N.P.,Finis Terrae University | Reyes E.,Hospital Carabineros of Chile | Reyes E.,Diego Portales University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Background: The limitations of total serum PSA values remain problematic, especially after an initial negative prostate biopsy. In this prospective study of Chilean men with a continued suspicion of prostate cancer due to a persistently elevated total serum PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination and initial negative prostate biopsy were compared with the use of the on-line Chun nomagram, detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) and free percent PSA to predict a positive second prostate biopsy. We hypothesized that men negative for circulating prostate cells have a small risk of clinically significant prostate cancer and thus may be conservatively observed. Men positive for circulating prostate cells should undergo biopsy to confirm prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Consecutive men with a continued suspicion of prostate cancer underwent 12 core TRUS prostate biopsy; age, total serum PSA and percentage free PSA and Chun nomagram scores were registered. Immediately before biopsy an 8ml blood simple was taken to detect primary mCPCs. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and identified using double immunostaining with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsies were classifed as cancer/no-cancer, mCPC detecton test as negative/positive and the total number of cells/8ml registered. Areas under the curve (AUC) for percentage free PSA, Chun score and CPCs were calculated and compared. Diagnostic yields were calculated with reference to the number of possible biopsies that could be avoided and the number of clinically significant cancers that would be missed. Results: A total of 164 men underwent a second biopsy; 41 (25%) had cancer; the AUCs were 0.65 for free PSA, 0.76 for the Chun score and 0.87 for CPC detection, the last having a significantly superior prediction value (p=0.01). Using cut off values of free PSA <10%, Chun score >;50% and ≥1 CPC detected, CPC detection had a higher diagnostic yield. Some 4/41 cancers complied with the criteria for active surveillance, free PSA and the Chun score missed a higher number of significant cancers when compared with CPC detection. Conclusions: Primary CPC detection outperformed the use of free PSA and the Chun nomagram in predicting clinically significant prostate cancer at repeat prostate biopsy. Source

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