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Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Yee Lui P.P.,Hospital Authority
Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications | Year: 2015

Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. © 2015 Lui. Source

Ng C.L.,Hospital Authority
Australian Family Physician | Year: 2010

Background Hypoglycaemia can have serious consequences for patients. Hypoglycaemia in nondiabetic patients is not a common condition, and is often a diagnostic challenge for general practitioners. Objective To search for evidence based guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypoglycaemia in nondiabetic adult patients and to see how these guidelines can be applied in general practice. Discussion The Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline 2009 recommends evaluation and management of hypoglycaemia only in patients in whom Whipple's triad is documented: symptoms and/or signs of hypoglycaemia; low plasma glucose; and resolution of symptoms and/or signs after plasma glucose returns to normal. The first step in evaluation is to pursue clinical clues to specific aetiologies, ie. drugs, critical illnesses, hormone deficiencies and nonislet cell tumours. In a seemingly well individual, the differential diagnosis of hypoglycaemic disorder narrows to drug induced hypoglycaemia; accidental, surreptitious, or malicious hypoglycaemia; endogenous hyperinsulinism; and idiopathic postprandial hypoglycaemia. When a spontaneous hypoglycaemic episode cannot be observed, patients should be referred for a prolonged fasting test or a mixed meal test. Source

Lui P.P.Y.,Hospital Authority
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

The pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Chondro-osteogenic BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7 have been reported in clinical samples and animal models of tendinopathy. As chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits have been observed in both clinical samples and animal models of failed tendon healing tendinopathy, chondro-osteogenic BMPs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and other histopathological changes in tendinopathy. In this review I have summarized the current evidence supporting the roles of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy. The potential targets, effects and sources of these BMPs are discussed. I have also provided directions for future studies about the potential roles of BMPs in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Better understanding of the roles of these BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy could provide new options for the prevention and treatment of this disabling tendon disorder. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. Source

Leung C.B.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Cheung W.L.,Hospital Authority | Li P.K.T.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Kidney International Supplements | Year: 2015

Renal Registry was started by the Hospital Authority (HA) in Hong Kong in 1995. It is an online system developed by HA. It collects all patients under care in HA, which is about 90-95 % of all requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Hong Kong. The total number of patients treated increased from 3312 in 1996 to 8510 in 2013. In 2013, there were 3501 renal transplant, 1192 hemodialysis (HD) and 3817 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In 2013, 1147 new patients joined the RRT program, 49.6% of them suffered from diabetic nephropathy. Glomerulonephritis and hypertension are the 2nd and 3rd most common causes of RRT in Hong Kong. The median age was 59.1 years with male to female ratio of 1.54 to 1. Hong Kong practices 'PD first' policy and the majority of the patients are on CAPD treatment. The ratio of PD to HD was 76.2% to 23.8%. Eighty-six percent of all PD patients are on CAPD; the remaining 14% are on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). Sixty-five percent of all dialysis patients are on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment. The Hong Kong Renal Registry with online real-time data input and access can provide timely data and information to facilitate patient care and management and also provides invaluable data to help in development and planning of renal services in Hong Kong. © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Source

Cho W.C.,Hospital Authority
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2014

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly recognized for their potential utility in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Emerging technologies in the past decade have allowed possible isolation and characterization of CTCs in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, including immunomagnetic technique coupled with immunofluorescence methodology, microfluidic platform, x-ray imaging technique and flow cytometry, filter-adapted FISH and miRNA microarray. Although there are still a number of challenges associated with the identification and molecular characterization of CTCs, the analysis of CTCs carries important prognostic and therapeutic implications for personalized cancer management. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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