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Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Kobayashi N.,Saitama Prefectural University | Yoshitomi H.,Ehime University
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2013

The subfamily Horelophopsinae was originally proposed as one of the earliest diverging clades of Hydrophilidae (s.s.), but its phylogenetic placement has never been tested. We describe the larva of Horelophopsis hanseni Satô et Yoshitomi, 2004 of the Horelophopsinae. Larval data are based on larval specimens collected together with adults, and unambiguously associated with them by means of DNA barcoding. We perform an analysis testing the phylogenetic position of H.hanseni based on larval and adult morphological characters. Horelophopsis hanseni is unambiguously placed within the hydrophilid subfamily Hydrophilinae and its close relationships to the genus Agraphydrus Régimbart, 1903 (Hydrophilinae, Acidocerini) is recognized. The results suggest that the subfamily Horelophopsinae is unlikely to be a basal taxon of Hydrophilidae, as originally suggested. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Song S.D.,Kyoto University | Sota T.,Kyoto University
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear 28S rRNA gene sequences of species of Japanese elmids (23 species from 12 genera) and examined the hind-wings of 24 species in order to determine the incidence of hind-wing degeneration among species and the presence of dimorphic species with respect to hindwing degeneration. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, we determined that the previously separated winged and wingless species, Stenelmis vulgaris and S. miyamotoi, and Leptelmis gracilis and L. parallela, are two forms of the same species. Of the 24 species whose hind wings were studied, we found apterous (3 species of Zaitzeviaria), brachypterous (2 species of each of Optioservus and Paramacronychus) and dimorphic species (2 species as above) in separate clades of the phylogeny. These were the smallest or medium-sized species. Dimorphic species occurred in mid- to downstream areas and used reeds and wood as substrates. The percentage of species with hind-wing degeneration (wingless or dimorphic) was high among the species (29%) studied compared to the perceived percentage for temperate beetles (< 10%). Thus, we found that the degeneration of hind wings has occurred repeatedly in these elmid species. However, we identified only ambiguous habitat and life history correlates of hind-wing degeneration, and the adaptive significance of hind-wing degeneration in these species of elmids remains unclear.

Minoshima Y.N.,Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2015

Larval morphology and head chaetotaxy are described for two genera of the tribe Berosini, Berosus Leach, 1817 and Regimbartia Zaitzev, 1908, based on reared and fi eld-collected larvae of Berosus (Berosus) japonicus Sharp, 1873 and Regimbartia attenuata (Fabricius, 1801). We describe and illustrate the general morphology and head chaetotaxy of all three instars of both species. We review and discuss an ecological character, which is an adaptation to benthic lifestyle in Berosus. Berosus larvae do not have air-bubbles in alimentary canal, whereas majority of hydrophilid larvae have air-bubbles. Absence of the bubbles results in loss of buoyancy and would be an adaptation in two different ecological trends: benthic and swimming lifestyles. A detailed comparison of head chaetotaxy of both genera is provided. Chaetotaxy of Berosus and Regimbartia are not largely different, therefore benthic lifestyle will not strongly affect chaetotaxy. We also provide information of knowledge about immature stages of the tribe Berosini and provide the identifi cation key to larvae of all fi ve genera of the tribe. Biology of both studied species is briefly commented as well. © 2015 National Museum/Narodni muzeum. All rights reserved.

Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2011

The larval morphology of the genus Hydrocassis Fairmaire, 1878 is described on the basis of three species of the genus: second instar of Hydrocassis jengi Satô, 1998, all instars of Hydrocassis lacustris (Sharp, 1884) and second and third instars of Hydrocassis uncinata Ji et Schödl, 1998; the former two belong to the Hydrocassis scapulata species group and the latter to the Hydrocassis scaphoides species group. Primary chaetotaxy of the larval head of Hydrocassis is described based on the first instar larvae of H. lacustris. Larval morphology of all genera of Sperchopsini with known larvae is summarized based on descriptions and figures from the literature, which are compared with Hydrocassis: larval morphology of Hydrocassis is similar to that of Sperchopsis, and the presumably closely related genus Ametor is distinguishable from Hydrocassis by characters of larval morphology. A key to the Sperchopsini genera on the basis of larval characters is provided. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Song S.D.,Kyoto University | Sota T.,Kyoto University
Entomological Science | Year: 2012

The phylogenetic relationships among the Japanese members of the genus Eubrianax (Coleoptera: Psephenidae) were examined using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunitI (COI) gene and nuclear 28SrRNA gene sequences. Based on the molecular phylogeny as well as morphological features, the species status of Eubrianax brunneicornisNakane, 1952 was proposed. The phylogenetic analyses recovered monophyly of the previously proposed pellucidus species group with four Japanese species, whereas a single Japanese species of the granicollis group was included in the lineage of the ramicornis group with five Japanese species. The divergence times of the species were estimated by dating the phylogenetic tree against the fossil record and a molecular clock based on the COI gene. The divergence of the Japanese species was inferred to have occurred during the Pliocene epoch. © 2012 The Entomological Society of Japan.

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