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Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Kobayashi N.,Saitama Prefectural University | Yoshitomi H.,Ehime University
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2013

The subfamily Horelophopsinae was originally proposed as one of the earliest diverging clades of Hydrophilidae (s.s.), but its phylogenetic placement has never been tested. We describe the larva of Horelophopsis hanseni Satô et Yoshitomi, 2004 of the Horelophopsinae. Larval data are based on larval specimens collected together with adults, and unambiguously associated with them by means of DNA barcoding. We perform an analysis testing the phylogenetic position of H.hanseni based on larval and adult morphological characters. Horelophopsis hanseni is unambiguously placed within the hydrophilid subfamily Hydrophilinae and its close relationships to the genus Agraphydrus Régimbart, 1903 (Hydrophilinae, Acidocerini) is recognized. The results suggest that the subfamily Horelophopsinae is unlikely to be a basal taxon of Hydrophilidae, as originally suggested. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Song S.D.,Kyoto University | Sota T.,Kyoto University
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear 28S rRNA gene sequences of species of Japanese elmids (23 species from 12 genera) and examined the hind-wings of 24 species in order to determine the incidence of hind-wing degeneration among species and the presence of dimorphic species with respect to hindwing degeneration. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, we determined that the previously separated winged and wingless species, Stenelmis vulgaris and S. miyamotoi, and Leptelmis gracilis and L. parallela, are two forms of the same species. Of the 24 species whose hind wings were studied, we found apterous (3 species of Zaitzeviaria), brachypterous (2 species of each of Optioservus and Paramacronychus) and dimorphic species (2 species as above) in separate clades of the phylogeny. These were the smallest or medium-sized species. Dimorphic species occurred in mid- to downstream areas and used reeds and wood as substrates. The percentage of species with hind-wing degeneration (wingless or dimorphic) was high among the species (29%) studied compared to the perceived percentage for temperate beetles (< 10%). Thus, we found that the degeneration of hind wings has occurred repeatedly in these elmid species. However, we identified only ambiguous habitat and life history correlates of hind-wing degeneration, and the adaptive significance of hind-wing degeneration in these species of elmids remains unclear.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Song S.D.,Kyoto University | Sota T.,Kyoto University
Entomological Science | Year: 2012

The phylogenetic relationships among the Japanese members of the genus Eubrianax (Coleoptera: Psephenidae) were examined using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunitI (COI) gene and nuclear 28SrRNA gene sequences. Based on the molecular phylogeny as well as morphological features, the species status of Eubrianax brunneicornisNakane, 1952 was proposed. The phylogenetic analyses recovered monophyly of the previously proposed pellucidus species group with four Japanese species, whereas a single Japanese species of the granicollis group was included in the lineage of the ramicornis group with five Japanese species. The divergence times of the species were estimated by dating the phylogenetic tree against the fossil record and a molecular clock based on the COI gene. The divergence of the Japanese species was inferred to have occurred during the Pliocene epoch. © 2012 The Entomological Society of Japan.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Sota T.,Kyoto University
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

We review the current knowledge of the distribution, ecology, fossils, and molecular phylogeny of donaciine beetles in Japan and its adjacent regions, and discuss historical faunal change on the Japanese islands during the Quaternary. The present Japanese fauna consists of 23 species within the genera Donacia, Plateumaris, and Macroplea, nine of which are endemic to Japan. Five fossil species have been found in strata from the Late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene; the fossil species became extinct by the Middle Pleistocene. The oldest fossils of the extant species are of two endemic species Plateumaris akiensis and P. constricticollis from the Pliocene. P. akiensis is currently confined to a single locality, whereas P.constricticollis occurs over a wide geographic range and shows marked morphological and genetic divergence. Early Pleistocene fossils of the endemic species Donacia japana and D. ozensis, and the non-endemic Donacia vulgaris have been found. Middle Pleistocene fossils of non-endemic species such as Plateumaris sericea and D. splendens have been found, suggesting their colonization of Japan during this period. Mitochondrial COI gene sequences indicate that the haplotype coalescence times date back to the Middle-Late Pleistocene in most extant species, suggesting the occurrence of colonization and/or bottleneck events during this period. Exceptionally, P.constricticollis shows a Pliocene coalescence coincident with fossil records. In addition, P.sericea likely colonized Hokkaido and Honshu/Kyushu separately during the Middle Pleistocene following the divergence of two different haplotype lineages during the Early Pleistocene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Miura N.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Iwatsubo Y.,University of Toyama
Cytologia | Year: 2014

In this study, we confirmed the chromosome forms for M. montis-koyae (2n=18) and M. urticifolia (2n=18 and 2n=27). The chromosome count of 2n=27 is a new count for this species. These two counts reveal the basic chromosome number of x=9, which then becomes 2n=18. Thus, 2n=18 M. urticifolia is a diploid plant, and 2n=27 M. urticifolia is a triploid plant. The somatic chromosome complement was formulated as 2n=18=7m+9sm+2st. As such, the second longest chromosome pair is heteromorphic with long arms of different lengths. Notably, meiotic chromosomes at metaphase I showed nine bivalent chromosomes with terminal associations. In addition, pollen fertilities showed a range of 65.4-97.0%, while the karyotype was formulated as 2n=27=13m+14sm. Meiotic chromosomes at diakinesis and metaphase I had univalent, bivalent and trivalent chromosomes, and pollen fertilities showed a range of 2.3-29.0%. Thus, the triploid species is a segmental allotriploid plant. Both polyploid forms of M. urticifolia occurred widely in Japan © 2014 The Japan Mendel Society.

Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation | Sota T.,Kyoto University
Entomological Science | Year: 2010

Larvae of Elmidae from the Sanin District, Honshu, Japan, were classified into 14 types based on morphological features, of which 11 types were unidentified for species. Species or genus of the unidentified types were determined by comparing their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences with those of identified adult specimens. A new key to species/genera of elmid larvae was proposed. © 2010 The Entomological Society of Japan.

Minoshima Y.N.,Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2015

Larval morphology and head chaetotaxy are described for two genera of the tribe Berosini, Berosus Leach, 1817 and Regimbartia Zaitzev, 1908, based on reared and fi eld-collected larvae of Berosus (Berosus) japonicus Sharp, 1873 and Regimbartia attenuata (Fabricius, 1801). We describe and illustrate the general morphology and head chaetotaxy of all three instars of both species. We review and discuss an ecological character, which is an adaptation to benthic lifestyle in Berosus. Berosus larvae do not have air-bubbles in alimentary canal, whereas majority of hydrophilid larvae have air-bubbles. Absence of the bubbles results in loss of buoyancy and would be an adaptation in two different ecological trends: benthic and swimming lifestyles. A detailed comparison of head chaetotaxy of both genera is provided. Chaetotaxy of Berosus and Regimbartia are not largely different, therefore benthic lifestyle will not strongly affect chaetotaxy. We also provide information of knowledge about immature stages of the tribe Berosini and provide the identifi cation key to larvae of all fi ve genera of the tribe. Biology of both studied species is briefly commented as well. © 2015 National Museum/Narodni muzeum. All rights reserved.

Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2011

The larval morphology of the genus Hydrocassis Fairmaire, 1878 is described on the basis of three species of the genus: second instar of Hydrocassis jengi Satô, 1998, all instars of Hydrocassis lacustris (Sharp, 1884) and second and third instars of Hydrocassis uncinata Ji et Schödl, 1998; the former two belong to the Hydrocassis scapulata species group and the latter to the Hydrocassis scaphoides species group. Primary chaetotaxy of the larval head of Hydrocassis is described based on the first instar larvae of H. lacustris. Larval morphology of all genera of Sperchopsini with known larvae is summarized based on descriptions and figures from the literature, which are compared with Hydrocassis: larval morphology of Hydrocassis is similar to that of Sperchopsis, and the presumably closely related genus Ametor is distinguishable from Hydrocassis by characters of larval morphology. A key to the Sperchopsini genera on the basis of larval characters is provided. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2011

Larval morphology of the Japanese representatives of the tribes Acidocerini, Hydrobiusini and Hydrophilini (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Hydrophilinae) is described. Eleven species assigned to seven genera are studied: Agraphydrus narusei (Satô, 1960) (fi rst and third instars), Enochrus (Holcophilydrus) simulans (Sharp, 1873) (all instars), E. (H.) umbratus Sharp, 1884 (third instar), E. (Methydrus) japonicus (Sharp, 1873) (all instars), Helochares (Helochares) pallens (MacLeay, 1825) (all instars), H. (Hydrobaticus) anchoralis Sharp, 1890 (fi rst instar), H. (Hydrobaticus) nipponicus Hebauer, 1995 (all instars), Hydrobius pauper Sharp, 1884 (second and third instars), Hydrochara affi nis (Sharp, 1873) (fi rst and third instars), Hydrophilus (Hydrophilus) acuminatus Motschulsky, 1854 (all instars), and Sternolophus (Sternolophus) rufi pes (Fabricius, 1792) (all instars). Three aspects of larval morphology were evaluated for each species studied: (1) general morphology; (2) chaetotaxy of the head capsule and its appendages; (3) morphological transformations between instars. Primary chaetotaxy is rather stable among taxa and instars examined, thus we were able to distinguish primary and secondary sensilla even in the majority of the second and third instar larvae studied. Secondary chaetotaxy shows slight intraspecifi c variation. Presence/absence of secondary sensilla may be useful at least for distinguishing the fi rst larval instar from later instars, and often for distinguishing all three larval instars. The arrangement of primary and secondary sensilla shows differences among the tribes and genera studied, and between species in Enochrus Thomson, 1859 and Helochares Mulsant, 1844. The pattern of character transformations between larval instars is rather constant among taxa examined. Generic keys of aquatic Hydrophilidae, tribes Acidocerini and Hydrophilini from Japan, and key to Japanese species of Enochrus and Helochares with known larvae are provided. © Národní muzeum, Praha - 2011.

Minoshima Y.,Hokkaido University | Hayashi M.,Hoshizaki Green Foundation
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The larval morphology of Amphiops mater mater Sharp, 1873 is described, including chaetotaxy and morphological transformation between instars. Among genera of the family Hydrophilidae, the larvae of Amphiops Erichson, 1843 may be distinguished by the following combination of characters: coronal line present; clypeolabrum almost symmetrical; mandibles symmetrical and with three inner teeth; dorsal surface of palpomere 1 completely sclerotized; mentum with strongly projecting and sharply pointed anterior corners; ligula absent; spiracular atrium well developed. Several primary sensilla are absent from all instars of A. mater mater, in contrast to the stable chaetotaxy in the majority of Hydrophilidae species studied in detail to date. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

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