Bogoescu M.,Horting Institute Intrarea Binelui |
Doltu M.,Horting Institute Intrarea Binelui |
Sora D.,Horting Institute Intrarea Binelui |
Tanasa N.,Horting Institute Intrarea Binelui
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010
In Romania, the cucumbers represent one of the most important crops in greenhouse, generally adopting a continuous monoculture. Since crop rotation is rarely adopted, the reduction of yield, both in quantity and quality, progressively affects the crops, thus making necessary the adoption of soil disinfestations practices or, other methods. Investigations at Horting Institute showed that after 4 years of continuous cucumber monoculture a yield reduction up to 38% occurred. Methyl bromide is, probably, the only fumigant that is effective against nematodes, weeds, pathogens, insects, and rodents. The treatment of soil with methyl bromide was used only by large commercial farmers (107.72 tons methyl bromide in 2003). Since the adhesion to the Montreal Protocol, Romania government decided to phase out methyl bromide use starting 2005. The efficacy of the chemical fumigants metham sodium (100 ml/m 2), 1,3 D + chloropicrin (45 g/m 2) and a non-chemical metho2d (grafting cucumbers) were tested and compared to that of methyl bromide (75 g/m 2) (standard control). Results of the demonstrative plots (MAKIS-project) obtained in 2008 indicated for the Romanian conditions, the following methyl bromide alternatives were suitable for soil disinfestation: metham sodium (chemicals methods), and grafting cucumbers (non-chemical method). Due to EU environmental policy on the medium or long term, the 1,3 dichloropropene + chloropicrin utilization in European Member States is uncertain.