Horticulture Research International

Lymington, United Kingdom

Horticulture Research International

Lymington, United Kingdom
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Munir M.,University of Reading | Munir M.,King Faisal University | Hadley P.,University of Reading | Carew J.,University of Reading | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

The objective of study was to quantify the flowering and leaf number response of Antirrhinum majus L. cv. Chimes White to different photoperiods, night temperatures and light integrals using photo-thermal model. Two experiments were conducted i.e. first one in February (under low ambient light integrals) and the second one in June (under high ambient light integrals). In each experiment plants of an early flowering cv. Chimes White were transferred (after 80% germination) to two night temperature suits (set-point temperatures 10 and 20°C), each having four photoperiod chambers (8, 11, 14 and 17 h.d-1). Results revealed that plants flowered earlier at long photoperiod (17 h.d-1), higher mean diurnal temperature (19.2°C in February and 23.4°C in June) and high ambient light integrals (8.26 MJ.m-2.d-1) and vice versa. These findings were successfully incorporated in to photo-thermal model, which was not reported before in Antirrhinum. The simple linear model hence updated, which would be helpful for growers to predict and quantify flowering time and leaf number (plant quality) of Antirrhinum well before their plantation to maintain its continual supply to the market. © 2017, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Colauto N.B.,Paranaense University | Fermor T.R.,Horticulture Research International | Eira A.F.,Paulista University | Linde G.A.,Paranaense University
Current Microbiology | Year: 2016

Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricusbitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75–85 % of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12 % are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A.bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Pettitt T.R.,Horticulture Research International | Wainwright M.F.,Horticulture Research International | Wakeham A.J.,Warwick HRI | Wakeham A.J.,University of Worcester | White J.G.,Warwick HRI
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A detached leaf assay was developed to determine the pathogenicity of Pythium isolates to cut-flower chrysanthemum roots. Leaves from young plants were excised and inoculated by insertion of a plug of mycelium into a slit cut in the excised petiole. After incubation leaves were assessed for presence and extent of necrosis. Necrosis indicated pathogenicity and was consistently confirmed by comparisons with whole plant inoculations. The rate of necrosis spread also gave some indication of virulence. Isolates of Pythium sylvaticum, P. ultimum and HS group were the most virulent, with a mean rate of spread of 14·6mm per day, significantly (P<0·05) faster than the mean rate of spread, 1·6mm per day, of less virulent isolates. Less virulent isolates included P. irregulare, P. oligandrum and P. aphanidermatum. The latter was unexpected, as P. aphanidermatum is an important species in pythium root rot epidemics in chrysanthemums elsewhere. The value of the detached leaf assay for screening large numbers of isolates was demonstrated in a survey of isolates from clinic samples from chrysanthemum nurseries and in a series of dilution-plating experiments looking at numbers of Pythium propagules in commercial chrysanthemum beds showing root rot. In the survey, the predominant pathogenic species was identified as P. sylvaticum and the most likely source of infection was contaminated soil as opposed to blocking media or irrigation water, whilst in soil colonization studies the use of detached leaf assays demonstrated a relationship between pathogenic inoculum concentration in soil and the expression of root rot symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbial ecology | Year: 2013

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas strains TH1 and 8MF2 were inhibitory. In contrast, when biomass of strains WT, TH1, and 8MF2 was autoclaved and incorporated at 1%, shoot fresh weight was promoted, but the biomass of T35 was inhibitory. None of the strains incorporated at 0.1 % w/w increased shoot fresh weight, and autoclaved biomass of TH1, T35, and 20 incorporated at 0.1% w/w resulted in lower shoot fresh weights in comparison with uninoculated controls. The shoot dry weight of lettuce seedlings could be enhanced by germinating seeds in uninoculated compost and after five days growth transferring them into WT-inoculated compost. Inoculum of strain TH1 when applied using this method was very inhibitory. With WT the degree of increase in shoot fresh weight and germination rate declined as the fermentation time to produce inocula was increased.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

The effects of the plant signal molecule acetosyringone (AS) and the osmoprotectant betaine phosphate (BP) have been examined for their ability to increase the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), C58C1::pGV3850 harboring the binary vector pKIWI105. This binary plasmid encodes the -glucuronidase (GUS) gene and was previously shown to be expressed exclusively in plant tissues. Bacteria were grown in one of two previously reported virulence induction media (MS20 and SIM) for 5h and GUS activity was measured fluorimetrically in individual 6 week old leaf discs as a quantitative measure of stable transformation events. Bacteria induced in MS20 supplemented with AS (0.1 mM) and BP (1 mM) showed a significant increase in GUS activity as compared to media containing AS or BP added singly or control media lacking the supplements. The effects of another osmoprotectant proline (1 mM) could replace the beneficial effects of betaine. No significant difference was observed among treatments with respect to the two induction media.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Six zones of LAP activity were detected in apples, some of them tissue specific. Genetic studies in four of them revealed the presence of four genes LAP-1, LAP-2, LAP-3 and LAP-4 with 4, 5, 4 and 4 alleles respectively including two null alleles. There were no big differences in allelic frequency within cultivars, selections, rootstocks and Malus species. Close linkage was found between LAP-2 and resistance to mildew derived from White Angel.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Six anodal and two cathodal zones of peroxidase activity were observed in apple and designated PRX-I to PRX-VIII from the most anodal to the most cathodal on the basis of migrational distance. PRX phenotypes were found to be coded by at least eight genes (PRX-1-8); analyses of four (PRX-2, PRX-3, PRX-4 and PRX-7) revealed 15 alleles including three null alleles. PRX-2 and PRX-3 were closely linked, and PRX-1 appeared to be in the same linkage group. In addition, PRX-4 and PRX-5 were linked.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Three main zones of esterase activity (EST-I, EST-III, EST-IV) identified in leaf extracts of cultivated apple and Malus species were determined by the genes EST-1, EST-3 and EST-4, respectively. In addition to earlier reported alleles of EST-1 (a, b) three further bands c, d and f were identified in the EST-I zone of which c was found to be determined by an allele, c. Two alleles, a, b, and a null allele were found for both the genes EST-3 and EST-4. Differences in allelic frequency were observed between cultivars, rootstocks and Malus species. Allele EST-1a was rare amongst the rootstocks. The examination of Malus species and derivatives showed a geographical relationship. Allele EST-1c was confined to species of Asian origin, and EST-1d was confined to American species.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

A variety of approaches are available for identifying the location and effect of QTL in segregating populations using molecular markers. However, these have problems in distinguishing two linked QTL, particularly in relation to the size of the test statistic when many independent tests are performed. An empirical method for obtaining the distribution of the test statistic for specific datasets is described, and its power for demonstrating the inadequacy of a single-QTL model is explored through computer simulation. The method is an extension of the previously described technique of marker regression, and it is applied here to demonstrate two situations in which it may be useful. Firstly, we examine the power of the technique to distinguish two, linked QTL from one and compare this ability with that of two contemporary methods, Mapmaker/QTL and regression mapping. Secondly, we show how to combine information from two, or more, populations that may be segregating for different marker loci in a given linkage group. This is illustrated for two populations having in common just two linked marker loci although the sharing of loci is not a pre-requisite. Empirical tests are used to determine whether the same or different QTL are segregating and, if they are the same QTL, whether they are the same alleles. Evidence is discussed which suggests that the upper limit to the number of QTL that can be located for any single quantitative trait in a segregating populations is 12.


PubMed | Horticulture Research International, Paulista University and Paranaense University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current microbiology | Year: 2016

Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85% of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12% are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested.

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