Horticulture Institute

Tateyama, Japan

Horticulture Institute

Tateyama, Japan
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Gloria Abad Z.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Abad J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cacciola S.O.,University of Catania | Pane A.,University of Catania | And 25 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2014

A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1a, and b-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

Nasser R.A.,King Saud University | Nasser R.A.,Alexandria University | Hiziroglu S.,Oklahoma State University | Abdel-Aal M.A.,Horticulture Institute | And 4 more authors.
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to characterize the properties of pulp and paper manufactured from two agricultural residues namely, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) and date palm midribs (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely available in Saudi Arabia by employing soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping process. Specimens from cedar wood (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl.) wood was also used as control samples. Chemical and the morphological characteristics of all three types of raw materials in addition to basic properties of hand sheets made from such resources were evaluated. The results indicated that wheat straw had the highest hemicellulose and ash values of 35% and 7% and the lowest lignin content value of 18%, respectively. The fibre length of the both palm fronds and wheat straw was lower than that of 2.2 mm which was found for J. procera. Overall strength properties of the handsheet made from two agricultural raw materials were significantly lower than those made from J. procera pulp. Wheat straw handsheets also had higher strength properties than those made from date palm midribs with an exception of their tear index. Based on the results of this study it appears that both types of raw materials, date palm midribs and wheat straw could have a potential to manufacture pulp and paper with accepted properties so that such underutilized species can be converted into value-added products. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nasser R.A.,King Saud University | Nasser R.A.,Alexandria University | Al-Mefarrej H.A.,King Saud University | Abdel-Aal M.A.,King Saud University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m-3meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment. © Triveni Enterprises.

Elshafei A.A.,King Saud University | Esmaiel N.M.,Horticulture institute | Esmaiel N.M.,King Saud University | Al-Doss A.A.,King Saud University | Barakat M.N.,King Saud University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to describe an efficient micropropagation protocol suitable for the production of clonally uniform Yucca plants through the shoot tip and lateral bud explants and compare the application and utility of TRAP and SRAP marker techniques for analysis of genetic diversity among six genetically Yucca diverse genotypes. The results indicated that the "Green" cultivar gave the significantly highest average mean value of primary and secondary shoot number (2.02 and 3.21 /explant, respectively). Medium protocol B containing MS medium + 0.2 mg/l of NAA+ 4.0 mg/l of BAP significantly gave the highest mean value for shoot multiplication derived from primary and secondary cultures (1.63 and 2.96/explant, respectively). The lateral bud explant derived propagules from the primary and secondary culture was the most effective for shoot multiplication. Molecular markers tools (SRAP and TRAP) analysis were used for detecting polymorphism among six genetically Yucca diverse genotypes. Cluster analysis using SRAP data grouped the 6 Yucca genotypes into two main clusters with Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranging from 0.40 to 0.64. The dendrogram generated from TRAP data clearly indicated two main clusters with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.40 to 0.92. SRAP and TRAP data were combined to produce a dendrogram and the similarity coefficient among the six Yucca genotypes varied from 0.39 to 0.75. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Nasser R.A.,King Saud University | Nasser R.A.,Alexandria University | Salem M.Z.M.,Alexandria University | Al-Mefarrej H.A.,King Saud University | And 4 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2014

Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01) were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01) were observed between the higher heating value (HHV) and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74) and lignin content (r=0.94). Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S) exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01) and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01) between the HV and C (r=0.96) and H (r=0.93). Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93). The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

Nour El-Deen A.H.,Taif University | Nour El-Deen A.H.,Mansoura University | Al-Barty Amal F.,Taif University | Darwesh Hadeer Y.,Taif University | And 2 more authors.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

Pomegranate is one of the most popular fruit trees cultivated in Taif, where special variety called Taify pomegranate is well known. Root-knot nematodes are the most damaging plant parasitic nematodes in pomegranate. The effect of five medicinal plant extracts i.e. colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), marigold (Tagetes erecta), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) as well as entomopathogenic nematodes i.e. Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. and their symbiotic bacteria i.e. Xenorhabdus sp. and Photorhabdus sp. against Meloidogyne incognita infecting pomegranate under greenhouse condition was evaluated. Results indicated that colocynth extract significantly surpassed all other treatments in improving total plant fresh and shoot dry weights with increase percentage values of 126.6 and 140 %, respectively comparing to nematode alone, whereas, marigold extract was the best treatment in suppressing nematode development. Steinernema spp. improved plant growth parameters; however, its symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus sp. showed the highest nematicidal properties with reduction percentages of galls and egg-masses numbers averaged 97.9 and 95.8 %, respectively.

Esmaiel N.M.,Horticulture Institute | Abdellateif K.F.,University of Sadat City | Mahmoud Eldemery S.M.,University of Sadat City | Zakri A.M.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to characterize and detect genetic relatedness among 21 ornamental species of the genus Ficus grown in Alexandria, Egypt, using the powerful combination of morphological and EST molecular markers. Results of the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis of the 21 Ficus species and the morphological traits indicated that the twelve morphological traits were separated into two main clusters in the first way of hierarchical clustering, while, in the other way of the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis, the Ficus species were distributed according to this analysis into five clusters. The relationships among the 21 Ficus species were estimated by a UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity matrices. Cluster analysis using EST data grouped the 21 Ficus species into four main clusters with simple matching (SM) similarity coefficient ranging from 0.56 to 0.99. The highest similarity was found between F. altissima and F. laurifolia (0.99), which have also very high value of similarity according to the morphological traits analysis, and the lowest similarity was obtained between F. altissima and F. afzelii (0.56). The polymorphic information content (PIC) per primer pairs ranged from 0.78 to 0.89 with an average of 0.84. PIC values were positively correlated (r = 0.61) with number of amplified alleles per primer.

Esmaiel N.M.,Horticulture institute | Al-Doss A.A.,King Saud University | Barakat M.N.,King Saud University | Barakat M.N.,Alexandria University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Ten cultivars of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) were screened by using leaf base explants and four media, for their capability of callus induction, embryogenic callus and plant regeneration. The results indicated that all in vitro culture traits were significantly influenced by the differences in cultivars and media. The two-way interaction was also highly significant. The percentage of explants that developed calli ranged from 78.3% ('Lia') to 58.6% ('Farida'). MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of NAA + 0.5 mg/l of BAP (Medium B) and medium supplemented with 0.01 mg/l of NAA + 1.0 mg/l of BAP (Medium C) gave the highest average of callus induction. The cultivar Banyas produced the highest callus weight with medium A, B and C on the other hand, the cultivar Miledy produced the highest callus weight with medium D. The highest percentage of embryogenic callus resulted from 'Miledy' cultivar. The percentage of root formation ranged from 0.0% ('Miledy') to 40.0% ('White Liberty'). Results also showed that the cultivars Lia and White Liberty produced the highest mean values of shoot formation (15.5 and 13.8%, respectively) when calli differentiated on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l BAP.

Esmaiel N.M.,Horticulture Institute | Elshafei A.A.,King Saud University | Elshafei A.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Zakri A.M.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2014

A protocol is established for shoot regeneration of the threatened plants, Lagunaria patersonii, using lateral bud and shoot tip explants. Lateral bud and shoot tip explants were regenerated directly into shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium free growth regulators. The micro-propagated plantlets as well as mother plant were subjected to the target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses to assess the genetic stability of micro-propagated plantlets of Lagunaria. Twenty micro-propagated plantlets were chosen from a clonal collection of shoots that originated from a single mother plant. Out of 20 TRAP and 30 SSR primers screened, 20 TRAP and 28 SSR primers were found to produce clear, reproducible bands resulting in a total of 66 and 65 distinct bands, respectively, 93.2% and 73.4% were not polymorphic for TRAP and SSR analyses, respectively, among the Lagunaria patersonii and 20 in vitro generated clones. Based on the TRAP band data, similarity indicators between the progenies and the mother ranged from 0.95 to 1.0 and the polymorphic bands comprised 2.4% of the total scored genetic loci with TRAP analysis which indicates that this micro-propagated line of Lagunaria patersonii is genetically stable. A total of 1309 scorable bands were obtained from the full combination of SSR primers and plantlets and only 98 (7.49%) were polymorphic across the plantlets which indicated that the micro-propagated Lagunaria patersonii is genetically stable.

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