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Dickinson G.R.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2011

Tropical hardwood tree improvement in northern Australia focuses on the conservation and breeding of native and exotic timber species. These programs included extensive initial seed collection for a diverse range of provenances and the establishment of species trials, provenance conservation facilities and commercial seed orchards. Hardwood plantations of the species cover several million hectares in China, southern India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam and are the bases of flourishing forest products industries. The tree improvement programs have also helped facilitate commercial plantations of Eucalyptus pellita in north Queensland, Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany) in the Northern Territory and Santalum album in Western Australia. The long-term future for hardwood tree improvement requires a cooperative approach between the public and private sectors to provide an efficient means to pool and best use scarce resources. Source

Fanning K.J.,Agri Science Queensland | Topp B.,University of Queensland | Russell D.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Stanley R.,University of Tasmania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Fay H.A.C.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

Bactrocera jarvisi (Tryon) is a moderate pest fruit fly particularly in northern Australia where mango is its main commercial host. It was largely considered non-responsive to the known male lures. However, male B.jarvisi are attracted to the flowers of Bulbophyllum baileyi, Passiflora ligularis, Passiflora maliformis and Semecarpus australiensis and this paper describes an attempt to determine the attractive compounds in the latter two species through chemical analysis. At about the same time, zingerone was identified as a fruit fly attractant in the flowers of Bulbophyllum patens in Malaysia, and this led the author to speculate that it could be attracting B.jarvisi to the flowers of B.baileyi. Two long-term traps, each with lures containing 2g of liquefied zingerone and 1mL maldison EC were established at Speewah, west of Cairns, in November 2001 and retained until April 2007. Over five complete years, 68897 flies were captured, of which 99.6% were male B.jarvisi. Annual peaks in activity occurred between mid-January and early February, when they averaged 1428.5±695.6 (mean±standard error) male B.jarvisi/trap/week. Very few B.jarvisi were caught between June and September. Among 12 other species of Bactrocera and Dacus attracted to zingerone were the previously non-lure responsive Bactrocera aglaiae, a new species Bactrocera speewahensis, and the rarely trapped Dacus secamoneae. Four separate trials were conducted over 8- to 19-week periods to compare the numbers and species of Bactrocera and Dacus caught by zingerone, raspberry ketone/cue-lure or methyl eugenol-baited traps. Overall, 27 different species of Bactrocera and Dacus were recorded. The zingerone-baited traps caught 97.7-99.3% male B.jarvisi and no methyl eugenol responsive flies. Significantly more Bactrocera neohumeralis or Bactrocera tryoni were attracted to raspberry ketone/cue-lure than to zingerone (P<0.001). Zingerone and structurally related compounds should be tested more widely throughout the region. © 2011 Australian Entomological Society. Source

Taghiyari H.R.,Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University | Norton J.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
IForest | Year: 2015

Effect of silver nanoparticles on hardness in medium-density fiberboard (MDF) was studied here. A 400 ppm aqueous nanosilver suspension was used at three consumption levels of 100, 150, and 200 mL kg-1, based on the dry weight of wood fibers; the results were then compared with the control panels. The size range of silver nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Composite mats were hot-pressed for 6, 8, and 10 min. Results showed that the uniform and even dispersion of nanoparticles throughout the MDF-matrix significantly contributed to an increase in the hardness at lower hot-press time of 6 min. In the longer hot-press times, however, over-heating of the mat resulted in significant a decrease of hardness values. Significant high correlation was observed between water absorption and thickness swelling. © SISEF. Source

Paine T.D.,University of California at Riverside | Steinbauer M.J.,La Trobe University | Lawson S.A.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2011

Eucalyptus species, native to Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and New Guinea, are the most widely planted hardwood timber species in the world. The trees, moved around the globe as seeds, escaped the diverse community of herbivores found in their native range. However, a number of herbivore species from the native range of eucalypts have invaded many Eucalyptus-growing regions in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America in the last 30 years. In addition, there have been shifts of native species, particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America, onto Eucalyptus. There are risks that these species as well as generalist herbivores from other parts of the world will invade Australia and threaten the trees in their native range. The risk to Eucalyptus plantations in Australia is further compounded by planting commercially important species outside their endemic range and shifting of local herbivore populations onto new host trees. Understanding the mechanisms underlying host specificity of Australian insects can provide insight into patterns of host range expansion of both native and exotic insects. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

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