Horticulture and Forestry Science

Australia

Horticulture and Forestry Science

Australia
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Sapak Z.,University Technology of MARA | Sapak Z.,University of Queensland | Salam M.U.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO | MacManus G.P.V.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2017

A weather-based simulation model, called Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits Simulation (POMICS), was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles. The underlying environmental factors associated with P. xanthii infection were quantified from laboratory and field studies, and also gathered from literature. The performance of the POMICS model when validated with two datasets of uncontrolled natural infection was good (the mean difference between simulated and observed disease severity on a scale of 0 to 5 was 0.02 and 0.05). In simulations, POMICS was able to predict high- and low-risk disease alerts. Furthermore, the predicted disease severity was responsive to the number of fungicide applications. Such responsiveness indicates that the model has the potential to be used as a tool to guide the scheduling of judicious fungicide applications. © 2017 The American Phytopathological Society.


Paine T.D.,University of California at Riverside | Steinbauer M.J.,La Trobe University | Lawson S.A.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2011

Eucalyptus species, native to Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and New Guinea, are the most widely planted hardwood timber species in the world. The trees, moved around the globe as seeds, escaped the diverse community of herbivores found in their native range. However, a number of herbivore species from the native range of eucalypts have invaded many Eucalyptus-growing regions in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America in the last 30 years. In addition, there have been shifts of native species, particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America, onto Eucalyptus. There are risks that these species as well as generalist herbivores from other parts of the world will invade Australia and threaten the trees in their native range. The risk to Eucalyptus plantations in Australia is further compounded by planting commercially important species outside their endemic range and shifting of local herbivore populations onto new host trees. Understanding the mechanisms underlying host specificity of Australian insects can provide insight into patterns of host range expansion of both native and exotic insects. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Fanourakis D.,Jülich Research Center | Pieruschka R.,Jülich Research Center | Savvides A.,Wageningen University | Macnish A.J.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | And 2 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2013

In determining vase life (VL), it is often not considered that the measured VL in a particular experiment may greatly depend on both the preharvest and evaluation environmental conditions. This makes the comparison between studies difficult and may lead to erroneous interpretation of results. In this review, we critically discuss the effect of the growth environment on the VL of cut roses. This effect is mainly related to changes in stomatal responsiveness, regulating water loss, whereas cut flower carbohydrate status appears less critical. When comparing cultivars, postharvest water loss and VL often show no correlation, indicating that components such as variation in the tissue resistance to cavitate and/or collapse at low water potential play an important role in the incidence of water stress symptoms. The effect of the growth environment on these components remains unknown. Botrytis cinerea sporulation and infection, as well as cut rose susceptibility to the pathogen are also affected by the growth environment, with the latter being largely unexplored. A huge variability in the choices made with respect to the experimental setup (harvest/conditioning methods, test room conditions and VL terminating symptoms) is reported. We highlight that these decisions, though frequently overlooked, influence the outcome of the study. Specifications for each of these factors are proposed as necessary to achieve a common VL protocol. Documentation of both preharvest conditions and a number of postharvest factors, including the test room conditions, is recommended not only for assisting comparisons between studies, but also to identify factors with major effects on VL. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Paynter M.L.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | De Faveri J.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Herrington M.E.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

Fusarium wilt of strawberry, incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), is a major disease of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) worldwide. An increase in disease outbreaks of the pathogen in Western Australia and Queensland plus the search for alternative disease management strategies place emphasis on the development of resistant cultivars. In response, a partial incomplete diallel cross involving four parents was performed for use in glasshouse resistance screenings. The resulting progeny were evaluated for their susceptibility to Fof. Best-performing progeny and suitability of progenies as parents were determined using data from disease severity ratings and analyzed using a linear mixed model incorporating a pedigree to produce best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values. Variation in disease response, ranging from highly susceptible to resistant, indicates a quantitative effect. The estimate of the narrow-sense heritability was 0.49 ± 0.04 (SE), suggesting the population should be responsive to phenotypic recurrent selection. Several progeny genotypes have predicted breeding values higher than any of the parents. Knowledge of Fof resistance derived from this study can help select best parents for future crosses for the development of new strawberry cultivars with Fof resistance.


Bally I.S.E.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Ibell P.T.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

This paper discusses the role of mango canopy architecture in mango productivity and orchard management and considers potential increases on production of high density orchards through improved canopy architecture. Lower tree height, reduced vigour and smaller more open canopies are recognised as important aspects of high density orchards. However, vigour management, light relations, flowering and crop load of high density orchards needs to be better understood if we are to developed sustainable highly productive canopy training and pruning systems that are easy to maintain at high planting densities.


Dickinson G.R.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2011

Tropical hardwood tree improvement in northern Australia focuses on the conservation and breeding of native and exotic timber species. These programs included extensive initial seed collection for a diverse range of provenances and the establishment of species trials, provenance conservation facilities and commercial seed orchards. Hardwood plantations of the species cover several million hectares in China, southern India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam and are the bases of flourishing forest products industries. The tree improvement programs have also helped facilitate commercial plantations of Eucalyptus pellita in north Queensland, Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany) in the Northern Territory and Santalum album in Western Australia. The long-term future for hardwood tree improvement requires a cooperative approach between the public and private sectors to provide an efficient means to pool and best use scarce resources.


Fanning K.J.,Agri Science Queensland | Topp B.,University of Queensland | Russell D.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Stanley R.,University of Tasmania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Fay H.A.C.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

Bactrocera jarvisi (Tryon) is a moderate pest fruit fly particularly in northern Australia where mango is its main commercial host. It was largely considered non-responsive to the known male lures. However, male B.jarvisi are attracted to the flowers of Bulbophyllum baileyi, Passiflora ligularis, Passiflora maliformis and Semecarpus australiensis and this paper describes an attempt to determine the attractive compounds in the latter two species through chemical analysis. At about the same time, zingerone was identified as a fruit fly attractant in the flowers of Bulbophyllum patens in Malaysia, and this led the author to speculate that it could be attracting B.jarvisi to the flowers of B.baileyi. Two long-term traps, each with lures containing 2g of liquefied zingerone and 1mL maldison EC were established at Speewah, west of Cairns, in November 2001 and retained until April 2007. Over five complete years, 68897 flies were captured, of which 99.6% were male B.jarvisi. Annual peaks in activity occurred between mid-January and early February, when they averaged 1428.5±695.6 (mean±standard error) male B.jarvisi/trap/week. Very few B.jarvisi were caught between June and September. Among 12 other species of Bactrocera and Dacus attracted to zingerone were the previously non-lure responsive Bactrocera aglaiae, a new species Bactrocera speewahensis, and the rarely trapped Dacus secamoneae. Four separate trials were conducted over 8- to 19-week periods to compare the numbers and species of Bactrocera and Dacus caught by zingerone, raspberry ketone/cue-lure or methyl eugenol-baited traps. Overall, 27 different species of Bactrocera and Dacus were recorded. The zingerone-baited traps caught 97.7-99.3% male B.jarvisi and no methyl eugenol responsive flies. Significantly more Bactrocera neohumeralis or Bactrocera tryoni were attracted to raspberry ketone/cue-lure than to zingerone (P<0.001). Zingerone and structurally related compounds should be tested more widely throughout the region. © 2011 Australian Entomological Society.


Lee D.J.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Huth J.R.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Osborne D.O.,Horticulture and Forestry Science | Hogg B.W.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
Australian Forestry | Year: 2010

Optimal matching of species to sites is required for a sustainable hardwood plantation industry in the subtropics. This paper reports the performance and adaptation of 60 taxa (species, provenances and hybrids) across two rainfall zones and a range of soil types in southern Queensland. Specifically, performance of taxa is compared across five replicated taxon-site matching trials at age 6 y. Three trials are in a 1000-mm y-1 rainfall zone of the Wide Bay region near Miriam Vale and two in a drier (about 750 mm y -1) rainfall zone near Kingaroy in the South Burnett region. In the higher-rainfall zone, the taxa with the fastest growth in the three trials at age 6 y were Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata Woondum provenance, which ranked 1st, 6th and 5th respectively; E. longiwstrata Coominglah provenance, ranked 3rd, 2nd and 3rd; and two sources of E. grandis, Copperlode provenance (ranked 4th and 1st) and SAPPI seed orchard (ranked 6th and 4th), which were planted in only two of the three trials. Similarly, in the lower-rainfall zone, E. grandis and its hybrids appear promising from the 6-y growth data., This excellent early growth, however, has not continued in either rainfall zone, with these taxa, 8 y after planting, now showing signs of stress and mortality. Based on trial results in these two rainfall zones, the taxon that appears the most promising for sustainable plantation development with high average annual volume index values and low incidence of borer attack is Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata (6.7 m3 hã1). Eucalyptus grandis and E. longiwstrata both have better average annual volume indexes (8.2 m3 ha-1 and 7.4 m3 ha-1 respectively) but are very susceptible to borer attack. The current and long-term productivity and sustainability of plantation forestry in these rainfall zones is discussed. Further, the implications of predicted climate change (particularly reduced rainfall) for growing trees for fibre production and carbon sequestration are explored.


Taghiyari H.R.,Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University | Norton J.,Horticulture and Forestry Science
IForest | Year: 2015

Effect of silver nanoparticles on hardness in medium-density fiberboard (MDF) was studied here. A 400 ppm aqueous nanosilver suspension was used at three consumption levels of 100, 150, and 200 mL kg-1, based on the dry weight of wood fibers; the results were then compared with the control panels. The size range of silver nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Composite mats were hot-pressed for 6, 8, and 10 min. Results showed that the uniform and even dispersion of nanoparticles throughout the MDF-matrix significantly contributed to an increase in the hardness at lower hot-press time of 6 min. In the longer hot-press times, however, over-heating of the mat resulted in significant a decrease of hardness values. Significant high correlation was observed between water absorption and thickness swelling. © SISEF.

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