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Deliza R.,Embrapa Food Technology | Rosenthal A.,Embrapa Food Technology | Hedderley D.,Crop and Food Research | Jaeger S.R.,The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2010

Papaya is a popular fruit among Brazilian consumers, but one problem is that fruit ripens quickly due to the high temperatures of the country. Irradiation is an effective way of slowing down ripening, hereby increasing shelf-life, but consumer acceptance of this novel technology is paramount for its successful introduction by industry. Using conjoint analysis, this research measures consumer acceptance of irradiated papaya fruit in a sample of urban Brazilian consumers. The study assesses the joint influence of product appearance, price and information about the use of irradiation for consumer choice. Real fruit was used and consumer responses were collected through intercept interviews in supermarkets. These two empirical aspects add external validity to the research. The responses from a convenience sample of 168 consumers from Rio de Janeiro revealed that the product appearance, as a proxy for product quality, was the most important factor influencing decision to purchase papaya. Price was of lesser importance. The participants in this study did not reject papaya due to the labelled information about the use of irradiation. This suggests irradiation as a viable alternative for fruit producers. Consumers demonstrated no knowledge about food irradiation, and education initiatives may be useful as a strategy to aid commercial introduction of irradiated papaya in Brazil. © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mitchell J.S.,The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Sensitive detection of small molecules using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) presents significant challenges as the antigen cannot serve as a signal generator because of its low mass; efficient binding of the target requires the binding event to be spaced from the sensor surface through a specialist linker conjugation. Competitive immunoassay of steroid hormones can be performed by conjugation through a rationally designed linker system at positions distant from existing antigenic functional groups. The binding signal from the primary antibody can then be further enhanced by sequential addition of secondary antibody or conjugated gold nanoparticles which can produce 13-fold signal enhancements through both their mass and co-operative plasmon coupling.

PubMed | The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

A transformation system was developed for the commercial apple (Malus X domestica Borkh.) cultivar Royal Gala. Leaf pieces from in vitro-grown shoots were cocultivated for 2 days with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing the binary vectors pKIWI105 or pKIWI110. Shoots were produced on a shooting medium containing kanamycin (50 mgL(-1)). A 2-day incubation period on kanamycin-free medium prior to antibiotic selection enhanced the regeneration of kanamycin-resistant shoots. The majority of the kanamycin-resistant shoots also expressed GUS (-glucuronidase) activity. The putatively transformed shoots were rooted on a medium containing kanamycin (50 mgL(-1)). Rooted plants were established in a greenhouse, and plants transformed with pKIWI110, which contains a mutant Arabidopsis acetolactate synthase gene, were shown to be resistant to the herbicide Glean(). Integration of T-DNA into the apple genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analyses.

PubMed | The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemical ecology | Year: 2013

The pheromone-mediated flight and landing behaviors of maleOstrinia nubilalis were studied in a wind tunnel. The pheromone source was placed in the middle of an 18 18-cm horizontal surface, and a smaller surface placed 4, 18, or 36 cm downwind. The smaller surface did not appear to affect significantly the flight tracks or position of landing of males on the upwind surface, and it allowed the positions and altitudes of males as they passed over the downwind surface to be estimated. The flight altitude and position of males as they passed over the downwind surface related to where males landed on the upwind surface. Regardless of the downwind position of the downwind surface, most males flew over its center (i.e., in line with the source) and landed in line with the source on the upwind surface. When a small 2.5 10-cm vertical object was placed on the upwind surface, just upwind and to one side of the source, males flew over the downwind surface in positions skewed toward the vertical object and in broader distributions than for the comparable situation without an object: males landed on the upwind surface on positions skewed toward, or on, the object and with a broader distribution (laterally). Flight altitude also corresponded with landing position. Thus, when there was no vertical object, most males flew just above the downwind surface and landed on the downwind edge of the upwind surface. In contrast, with the vertical object, males flew significantly higher and tended to land past the downwind edge of the upwind surface. With a taller object (20 cm), males flew even higher, past the downwind edge and most landed on the vertical object. These data show the close relationship between flight and landing behaviors of maleO. nubilalis and suggest that flight maneuvers that determine track and altitude largely govern where a male lands.

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