Horticulture

Coimbatore, India

Horticulture

Coimbatore, India

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Markam P.S.,Horticulture | Sahu M.K.,SMS
Plant Archives | Year: 2015

An investigation was conducted to assess the genetic divergence of quantitative characters under Bastar Plateau of Chhattisgarh, India. The experiment was conducted during kharif seasons 2010-11 &2011-12 at S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station (IGKV), Jagdalpur, Bastar (C. G.), India. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 20 genotypes of tikhur with 03 replications. The genotypes were grown randomly in each replication in a total of 60 plots of 3.0 m × 2.4 m each containing 60 plants per plot. Observations were recorded from ten randomly selected sample plants in each treatment and observed mean value used for statistical analysis. In the pooled analysis, highest intra cluster distance was observed in cluster V and lowest was in cluster III. The highest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster I and V and lowest between cluster II and III. Cluster IV had the highest number of genotypes (6) and lowest was in cluster I (2) genotypes. cluster IV had the highest mean values for leaf area index, weight of mother rhizome per plant, weight of primary finger rhizome per plant, weight of secondary finger rhizome per plant, number of primary finger rhizome, thickness of primary finger rhizome per plant and total rhizome yield t/ha. Cluster V had maximum mean values for plant height, leaf length leaf breadth and dry matter per cent. Cluster I had highest mean value for number of leaves per plant, harvest index, and thickness of mother rhizome per plant and cluster II had maximum mean values for days to maturity, number of mother rhizome per plant and starch recovery per cent. Based on inter cluster distance and cluster means, it can be concluded that genotypes of the cluster V and II could be select for hybridization programme as they are expected to produce high heterogenic crosses. Based on D2 studies genotypes IGBT-10-1, IGKOT-10-1, IGDMT-10-1, IGBT-10-4, IGDNT-10-1, IGSJT-10-1 and IGSJT-10-2 have been selected for hybridization and tikhur improvement programme. For hybridization programme parents of tikhur should not be selected form same cluster. On the basis of the above analysis, genotypes IGBT-10-4 and IGSJT-10-2 is recommended to be used as parents for starch recovery per cent and total rhizome yield.


Podwyszynska M.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Gabryszewska E.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Dyki B.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Stepowska A.A.,Research Institute of Horticulture | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2015

Tetraploids of daylily have taken a leading position among the daylily cultivars due to desirable traits such as vigorous growth and flowers with more intense colour. In our previous studies, several tetraploids of daylily cultivars ‘Blink of an Eye’ and ‘Berlin Multi’ were obtained using in vitro techniques with different antimitotic agents (colchicine, oryzalin, trifluralin, and amiprophos methyl). The purposes of this study were to evaluate changes in daylily tetraploids in relation to their diploid counterparts and to assess variation among diploids and tetraploids derived from genetically homogenous plant material treated with antimitotic agents. In the first year of the ex vitro cultivation, growth of tetraploids was poorer in comparison with diploids, but in the second year, tetraploid growth was much more vigorous. Compared to diploids, in tetraploids of both cultivars percentage of flowering plants was lower, flowering was delayed by 8 days and 1 month in ‘Blink of an Eye’ and ‘Berlin Multi’, respectively, and bud number per scape was lower by approximately 20 and 40 %, respectively. Tetraploid leaves and flowers of both cultivars were significantly larger, chlorophyll concentration index was higher by approximately 40 %, and stomata were longer by 35 %. In ‘Berlin Multi’ tetraploids, inflorescence stems were shorter by 20 %. In ‘Blink of an Eye’, variation in flower colour tone and shape and stamen malformation rate was detected both within the unconverted diploids and tetraploids but was more evident in tetraploids. In both cultivars, variation was also found in the nuclear DNA content, which ranged in diploids and tetraploids, respectively, 8.02–8.53 and 16.01–17.13 pg in ‘Berlin Multi’ and 8.28–8.71 and 15.93–17.36 pg in ‘Blink of an Eye’. Since the variation, while less evident, also occurred in the diploids (regenerated from the antimitotic treated material), we suppose that these variations could be due to antimitotic agents that can induce not only chromosome doubling but also chromosomal and gene mutations. The extent and character of these changes can be related to parental genotype and/or antimitotic agent. Further research is required at the cytological and molecular level to explain the character of changes, epigenetic and/or genetic. © 2014, The Author(s).


Podwyszynska M.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Gabryszewska E.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Sochacki D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Jasinski A.,Horticulture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Tetraploids have taken a leading position among the daylilies cultivars due to the desirable traits such as vigorous growth and large flower. The objective of this study was to determine the ploidy level in colchicine-induced plants and to identify ploidy chimeras based on 1) stomata length, 2) leaf width and 3) chromosome number in root tip cells. These three parameters show the ploidy level in the layer L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Stomata lengths and chromosome counts were estimated in diploids (2n=2x=22; Hemerocallis × hybrida 'Blink of an Eye', H. multiflora 'Berliner Multi'), tetraploid ('Beyond New Millenium'), periclinal chimeras 2-4-4 ('Tetra Siloam Double Classic', 'Tetra Janice Brown') and colchicine-induced plants. The stomata length depends not only on the ploidy level but also on the leaf age and the stomata position on the leaf. The stomata from the fourth leaf, more distant from the tip, 15-20 cm, were generally longer than those from the third leaf, 10 cm distant from the tip. Therefore, the leaf sampling for the comparative determination of the ploidy level should be well defined. Independently of the genotype, the stomata length was strongly associated with the ploidy level. Diploids as well as chimeras 2-4-4 had shorter stomata than tetraploids by 30%. Each colchicine-treated diploids produced four or five regenerants, and about 50% of them differed from mother plants. They had wider leaves and longer stomata. Such stomata were observed all over the leaf blade area or they occurred only in some leaf sectors. The newly-obtained plants were recognized as sectorial chimeras.


Czernyszewicz E.,Horticulture
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2011

Food products offered to consumers should be of high quality, and, first of all, safe for health. Health safety issues have been settled by and included in the EU food law. Those issues are also mirrored in consumer preferences. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of some selected socio-demographic characteristics on the opinions referring to the quality of fruits. It was found that, in addition to taste, the most important features of fruit quality are: freshness, healthful values, and appetizing appearance. Those attributes are also important fruit selection criteria. In the opinion of the majority of respondents, the hazards involved in the purchase of fruits comprise the lack of freshness and the presence of spoiled fruits and pesticide residues inside the packages. To reduce the fruit safety hazards, the fruits should be washed, peeled, and, also, purchased in proven places. Those fruit purchase-related hazards indicated by the consumers should constitute a valuable guidance for producers and other elements of the entire distribution chain interested in increasing the purchase and consumption of fruits.


Kavitha C.,Agriculture | Rajamani K.,HC and RI | Vadivel E.,Horticulture
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Coleus forskohlii is an important indigenous medicinal plant in India. It has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for curing various disorders and this is the only source of the diterpenoid forskolin. Forskolin is used for the treatment of eczema, asthma, psoriasis, cardiovascular disorders and hypertension, where decreased intracellular cAMP level is believed to be a major factor in the development of the disease process. A comprehensive account of the morphology, distribution, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, analytical methods, cultivation aspects and biotechnological approaches for forskolin production reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. © 2009 Academic Journals.


Stassen P.J.C.,Horticulture | Wooldridge J.,Soil and Water Science | Booyse M.,Biometry Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Nectarine orchards were established on nematode-infested, sandy (>90% sand), slightly acid (pH 5.8, KCl) soils in the northern peach producing region of South Africa. 'Alpine' scions on 16 different rootstock cultivars were evaluated over three, three and 6 harvests after the orchards were established in 2009, 2008 and 2000, respectively. Trees on Flordaguard gave higher average and cumulative yields than on all other rootstocks in the 2009 and 2000 orchards, but did not differ (at P = 0.05) from Cadaman in 2008. Yield efficiencies on Flordaguard were higher than on Cadaman, Guardian, SAPO 778 seedling and Kakamas in 2008, SAPO 767, Penta and Tetra in 2009, and SAPO 778, SAPO 778 seedling, Nemared, Cadaman and Adafuel in 2000. Fruit weights from trees on Flordaguard and Atlas were high and did not differ, but were low for trees on GF 677 and Kakamas seedling in 2008, Penta and Tetra in 2009 and Ferciana in 2000. Trees on Kakamas seedling consistently produced lighter fruit than on Atlas. Trees on Flordaguard promoted large trunk circumferences compared to trees on GF 677 and Kakamas seedling in 2008, Kakamas seedling, Penta and Tetra in 2009, and Kakamas seedling, Viking, GF 677 and Ferciana in 2000. The 'Alpine' nectarine trees perform well on Flordaguard rootstock in sandy soils with low to medium numbers of ring and high numbers of root-knot nematodes.


Gunasekaran P.,Horticulture | Shakila A.,Annamalai University
Plant Archives | Year: 2013

To study the effect of fertigation on tuber characters and yield of medicinal coleus, an experiment was laid out in a farmer's field at Perundurai Block of Erode district, Tamil Nadu in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of six fertigation regimes along with a control. Fertigation schedule included 100 percent NK in 50:30:20 ratio (T 1), 40:40:20 ratio (T2), 30:50:20 ratio (T3) and fertigation with 75 percent NK in 50:30:20 ratio (T4), 40:40:20 ratio (T5) and 30:50:20 ratio (T6). For fertigation plots, the three fractions of each ratio were applied at 0-50, 51-100 and 101-150 days after planting (DAP). A total of 10 fertigations were given from 15 DAP upto 150 DAP at 15 days interval. Irrespective of the fertilizer split ratio, 100 percent NK recorded higher values for all the tuber characters. Fertigation with 100 percent NK (30 kg N and 50 kg K2O) recorded higher tuber yield than fertigation with 75 percent NK irrespective of the fertilizer split ratio. There was a marginal increase in the forskolin content due to fertigation.


PubMed | Horticulture and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2016

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, -, -, -proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

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