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Coimbatore, India

Kavitha C.,Agriculture | Rajamani K.,HC and RI | Vadivel E.,Horticulture
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Coleus forskohlii is an important indigenous medicinal plant in India. It has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for curing various disorders and this is the only source of the diterpenoid forskolin. Forskolin is used for the treatment of eczema, asthma, psoriasis, cardiovascular disorders and hypertension, where decreased intracellular cAMP level is believed to be a major factor in the development of the disease process. A comprehensive account of the morphology, distribution, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, analytical methods, cultivation aspects and biotechnological approaches for forskolin production reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. © 2009 Academic Journals. Source


Podwyszynska M.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Gabryszewska E.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Dyki B.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Stepowska A.A.,Research Institute of Horticulture | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2015

Tetraploids of daylily have taken a leading position among the daylily cultivars due to desirable traits such as vigorous growth and flowers with more intense colour. In our previous studies, several tetraploids of daylily cultivars ‘Blink of an Eye’ and ‘Berlin Multi’ were obtained using in vitro techniques with different antimitotic agents (colchicine, oryzalin, trifluralin, and amiprophos methyl). The purposes of this study were to evaluate changes in daylily tetraploids in relation to their diploid counterparts and to assess variation among diploids and tetraploids derived from genetically homogenous plant material treated with antimitotic agents. In the first year of the ex vitro cultivation, growth of tetraploids was poorer in comparison with diploids, but in the second year, tetraploid growth was much more vigorous. Compared to diploids, in tetraploids of both cultivars percentage of flowering plants was lower, flowering was delayed by 8 days and 1 month in ‘Blink of an Eye’ and ‘Berlin Multi’, respectively, and bud number per scape was lower by approximately 20 and 40 %, respectively. Tetraploid leaves and flowers of both cultivars were significantly larger, chlorophyll concentration index was higher by approximately 40 %, and stomata were longer by 35 %. In ‘Berlin Multi’ tetraploids, inflorescence stems were shorter by 20 %. In ‘Blink of an Eye’, variation in flower colour tone and shape and stamen malformation rate was detected both within the unconverted diploids and tetraploids but was more evident in tetraploids. In both cultivars, variation was also found in the nuclear DNA content, which ranged in diploids and tetraploids, respectively, 8.02–8.53 and 16.01–17.13 pg in ‘Berlin Multi’ and 8.28–8.71 and 15.93–17.36 pg in ‘Blink of an Eye’. Since the variation, while less evident, also occurred in the diploids (regenerated from the antimitotic treated material), we suppose that these variations could be due to antimitotic agents that can induce not only chromosome doubling but also chromosomal and gene mutations. The extent and character of these changes can be related to parental genotype and/or antimitotic agent. Further research is required at the cytological and molecular level to explain the character of changes, epigenetic and/or genetic. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Podwyszynska M.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Gabryszewska E.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Sochacki D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Jasinski A.,Horticulture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Tetraploids have taken a leading position among the daylilies cultivars due to the desirable traits such as vigorous growth and large flower. The objective of this study was to determine the ploidy level in colchicine-induced plants and to identify ploidy chimeras based on 1) stomata length, 2) leaf width and 3) chromosome number in root tip cells. These three parameters show the ploidy level in the layer L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Stomata lengths and chromosome counts were estimated in diploids (2n=2x=22; Hemerocallis × hybrida 'Blink of an Eye', H. multiflora 'Berliner Multi'), tetraploid ('Beyond New Millenium'), periclinal chimeras 2-4-4 ('Tetra Siloam Double Classic', 'Tetra Janice Brown') and colchicine-induced plants. The stomata length depends not only on the ploidy level but also on the leaf age and the stomata position on the leaf. The stomata from the fourth leaf, more distant from the tip, 15-20 cm, were generally longer than those from the third leaf, 10 cm distant from the tip. Therefore, the leaf sampling for the comparative determination of the ploidy level should be well defined. Independently of the genotype, the stomata length was strongly associated with the ploidy level. Diploids as well as chimeras 2-4-4 had shorter stomata than tetraploids by 30%. Each colchicine-treated diploids produced four or five regenerants, and about 50% of them differed from mother plants. They had wider leaves and longer stomata. Such stomata were observed all over the leaf blade area or they occurred only in some leaf sectors. The newly-obtained plants were recognized as sectorial chimeras. Source


Czernyszewicz E.,Horticulture
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2011

Food products offered to consumers should be of high quality, and, first of all, safe for health. Health safety issues have been settled by and included in the EU food law. Those issues are also mirrored in consumer preferences. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of some selected socio-demographic characteristics on the opinions referring to the quality of fruits. It was found that, in addition to taste, the most important features of fruit quality are: freshness, healthful values, and appetizing appearance. Those attributes are also important fruit selection criteria. In the opinion of the majority of respondents, the hazards involved in the purchase of fruits comprise the lack of freshness and the presence of spoiled fruits and pesticide residues inside the packages. To reduce the fruit safety hazards, the fruits should be washed, peeled, and, also, purchased in proven places. Those fruit purchase-related hazards indicated by the consumers should constitute a valuable guidance for producers and other elements of the entire distribution chain interested in increasing the purchase and consumption of fruits. Source


Stassen P.J.C.,Horticulture | Wooldridge J.,Soil and Water Science | Booyse M.,Biometry Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Nectarine orchards were established on nematode-infested, sandy (>90% sand), slightly acid (pH 5.8, KCl) soils in the northern peach producing region of South Africa. 'Alpine' scions on 16 different rootstock cultivars were evaluated over three, three and 6 harvests after the orchards were established in 2009, 2008 and 2000, respectively. Trees on Flordaguard gave higher average and cumulative yields than on all other rootstocks in the 2009 and 2000 orchards, but did not differ (at P = 0.05) from Cadaman in 2008. Yield efficiencies on Flordaguard were higher than on Cadaman, Guardian, SAPO 778 seedling and Kakamas in 2008, SAPO 767, Penta and Tetra in 2009, and SAPO 778, SAPO 778 seedling, Nemared, Cadaman and Adafuel in 2000. Fruit weights from trees on Flordaguard and Atlas were high and did not differ, but were low for trees on GF 677 and Kakamas seedling in 2008, Penta and Tetra in 2009 and Ferciana in 2000. Trees on Kakamas seedling consistently produced lighter fruit than on Atlas. Trees on Flordaguard promoted large trunk circumferences compared to trees on GF 677 and Kakamas seedling in 2008, Kakamas seedling, Penta and Tetra in 2009, and Kakamas seedling, Viking, GF 677 and Ferciana in 2000. The 'Alpine' nectarine trees perform well on Flordaguard rootstock in sandy soils with low to medium numbers of ring and high numbers of root-knot nematodes. Source

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