Horticultural Science Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran

Horticultural Science Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran
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Moradi S.,University of Kurdistan | Koushesh Saba M.,University of Kurdistan | Mozafari A.A.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Abdollahi H.,Horticultural Science Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Quince fruit has many benefits to human health and is an excellent source of pectin for jellies and jam industry. The objective of the present research was to study fruit physiochemical attributes of some quince genotypes at harvest and their changes during cold storage. The fruit of 15 genotypes were harvested at optimum maturity and stored for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days in cold storage and some parameters were measured. The range of 13.00-18.76% for Soluble Solid Content (SSC), 0.38-0.95% for titratable acidity, 2.55-3.75 for pH, 52.16-91.00 N for firmness, 0.89-0.98 g cm-3 for density, 255.39-349.56 mg 100 g-1 DM for carbohydrate, 7.28-23.02% for pectin and 11.66-33.30% for fruit fibers were observed across genotypes at harvest time. Negative correlations were found between weight loss and both firmness and density, while firmness had positive correlation with pectin and Ca content. Generally, significant changes (P≤ 0.05) for measured characters were observed across genotypes and during cold storage, but the rate of changes varied according to genotypes. It was found that each studied genotype had one or more unique character such as lowest weight loss in ‘Paveh 1', highest fruit firmness retaining in ‘Marivan1', highest pectin in ‘Marivan 1' and highest SSC in ‘Marivan 2', that are promising for fruit breeding in future programs. © 2017, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Ramzi S.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Sahragard A.,Guilan University | Sendi J.J.,Guilan University | Aalami A.,Guilan University
Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research | Year: 2016

The larvae of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller were reared on the artificial diets containing 2% of Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) lectin and control to find any changes in gene expression of caspases. Specific primers were designed to amplify genes of six found caspases including Caspase 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. RNA of both treatments were extracted and cDNA molecules were synthesized prior to gene expression. Results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of all caspases in the fed larvae by 2% of lectin increased in comparison with control except for caspase 1 as 2.99, 5.7, 17.13, 23.18, 10.44-fold. These results are consistent with our previous studies on the lower activities of digestive enzymes that are due to death of midgut cells followed by binding of lectin molecule. © S. Ramzi et al.

Jazaeri M.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Akhgar A.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Sarcheshmehpour M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Mohammadi A.H.,Horticultural Science Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

In order to improve the effectiveness of phosphate rock as phosphorus fertilizer, elemental sulfur and Thiobacillus have been evaluated as amendments. First, Thiobacillus was isolated from different soil samples. Then, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with three factors included: elemental sulfur at four levels of 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg kg−1; phosphate rock at three levels of 0, 1000 and 2000 mg kg−1; four Thiobacillus inoculums (T1, T2, T3, T4) and without inoculation (T0) in three replications. Results showed that all the four Thiobacillus inoculums increased significantly extractable soil-P. Combined application of phosphate rock and sulfur in equal proportion (1:1) along with inoculum Thiobacillus had a significant effect in improving phosphorus availability in soil. Combined application of sulfur (at rates of 1000 and 2000 mg kg–1) and Thiobacillus significantly increased phosphorus uptake by plants as compared to the control. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Sohrabi M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Mohammadi H.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Mohammadi A.H.,Horticultural Science Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In the present study, the effect of two species of AMF, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and in combination, was evaluated on the growth criteria, chlorophyll content, and root rot disease caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under greenhouse conditions. Chickpea seeds were sown into pots containing 100 g of AMF inoculum (more than 1,000 propagules g-1) and, after four weeks, root of seedlings were inoculated with conidia suspension (106 conidia mL-1) of F. solani f. sp. pisi. Six weeks after pathogen inoculation, shoot and root dry weight, shoot height, chlorophyll content and mycorrhizal and Fusarium colonization were measured. Results showed that inoculation of G. mosseae was more effective than G. intraradices and dual inoculations (G. intraradices+G. mosseae) on the above criteria. Inoculation of F. solani f. sp. pisi without AMF treatments reduced shoot height, shoot and root dry weight, and chlorophyll content significantly compared with the control. In the presence of AMF, root colonization by F. solani f. sp. pisi and disease severity decreased and individual inoculation with G. mosseae was more effective than the other treatments. Inoculation of G. mosseae and G. intraradices caused a significant increase in plant height, shoot and root dry weight, and chlorophyll content of pathogen-inoculated plants compared with inoculated chickpea plants with F. solani f. sp. pisi. Based on the results, application of G. mosseae was found to be the best for reducing the root rot disease and improving plant growth parameters of chickpea, followed by G. intraradices and dual inoculations. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Rahemi A.,University of Florida | Rahemi A.,University of Tehran | Gradziel T.M.,University of California at Davis | Chaparro J.X.,University of Florida | And 5 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2015

To identify and evaluate self-incompatible alleles in almonds and related germplasm, DNAfrom 15 Prunus species was amplified using two degenerate consensus primer pairs flanking first and second S-locus introns (PaConsI-FD-EMPc1ConsRD and EM-Pc2ConsFD-EM-Pc3ConsRD). Twenty-eight amplified PCR products were analyzed by automated sequencer capillary electrophoresis. Sequenced fragments were aligned against available Prunus S-locus sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information and S-alleles identities were determined. The phylogenetic relationships between S-alleles in the germplasm studied were determined by the homology between their sequences and dendrograms were obtained for each primer pair. The Maximum Likelihood (homology) ranged from 84 to 100%. Most sequences were similar to cultivated almond (Prunus dulcis) or to the European wild almond (P. webbii). Twenty-six alleles for the first and the second introns were registered in the database in the GenBank. Two sequences of the first and second introns, which were taken from Prunus nairica and had similarity in GenBank, were registered in the database under a common sequence of the first and second intron. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships (dendrograms) among S-alleles from wild almond species as well as S-alleles cluster relations showed most pairs of alleles well supported by bootstrap. © 2015, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.

Banihashemian S.N.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin | Bani Hashemian S.M.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Ashkan S.M.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Citrus plants are hosts of several viroid species, among which, pathogenic variants of Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd) induce citrus cachexia disease. Stunting, chlorosis, gumming of the bark, stem pitting and decline are symptoms of cachexia in mandarins and their hybrids as susceptible hosts. Based on the pathogenic properties on citrus, HSVd variants are divided in two distinct groups: those that are symptomless on sensitive citrus host species and those that induce cachexia disease. In this study, two cachexia isolates were selected and biological indexing was performed in a controlled temperature greenhouse (40ºC day and 28ºC night) using Etrog citron (Citrus medica) grafted on Rough lemon (C. jhambiri), as a common indicator for citrus viroids. The plants were inoculated with the inocula from a severe symptomatic tree of a newly declining orchard of Jiroft, Kerman province and a mild symptomatic tree from Mazandaran province. Presence of HSVd was confirmed with sPAGE, Hybridization by DIG-labeled probes and RT-PCR using specific primers of HSVd. Primary and secondary structures of the isolates were studied. The consensus sequence of RT-PCR amplicons of the severe isolate (JX430796) presented 97% identity with the reference sequence of a IIb variant of HSVd (AF213501) and an Iranian isolate of the viroid (GQ923783) deposited in the gene bank. The mild isolate (JX430798) presented 100% homology with the HSVd-IIc variant previously reported from Iran (GQ923784). Both isolates were shown to be cachexia inducing according to their sizes, sequences and lack of “non-cachexia expression motif” structures. © 2016, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Raiesi T.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Hosseinpur A.,Shahrekord University | Raiesi H.,Guilan University
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2015

The biological and chemical conditions of the rhizosphere are known to considerably differ from those of the bulk soil, as a consequence of a range of processes that are induced either directly by the activity of plant roots or indirectly by the stimulation of microbial population and activity in the rhizosphere. Information about phosphorus (P) fractionation in the rhizosphere soils amended with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) is limited. were We carried out greenhouse experiments using a rhizobox in order to evaluate the effects of bean rhizosphere on the various inorganic P (Pi) fractions, organic P (Po), P in particulate fraction (PF-P), Olsen-P, dissolved organic C (DOC), microbial biomass P (MBP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme in 10 calcareous soils amended with MSS (10 g MSS was added to 1 kg soil). Non-occluded P, occluded P, calcium phosphate and residual P were also quantitated. The results showed that DOC, MBP and ALP activity strongly increased and PF-P and Olsen-P decreased in the rhizosphere soils compared with in the bulk soils (P<0.05). The contents of non-occluded P, occluded P and residual-P fractions in the rhizosphere soils were lower than in the bulk soils, while the contents of calcium phosphate and organic P in the rhizosphere soils were higher than in the bulk soils. Simple correlation coefficients showed that P uptake had positive relationship with non-occluded P, occluded P, calcium phosphate fractions and PF-P in the rhizosphere soils. The results suggest that the short-term application of MSS to the calcareous soils may increase Po and calcium phosphate fractions in the rhizosphere soils, and calcium phosphate fraction is potentially available to crops. © Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

Shiri M.A.,Guilan University | Ghasemnezhad M.,Guilan University | Moghadam J.F.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Ebrahimi R.,Guilan University
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2016

Despite the importance of calcium in many fruit species and the effects of calcium application, there is little or no reliable information on the effect of CaCl2 spray at different fruit development stages on the fruit mineral nutrient content during the growing season and at harvest. Therefore, this study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2, 15 g L-1) spray at different fruit development stages on the accumulation Ca and other macronutrients in cv. Hayward kiwifruit grown at two locations. In order to find the absorbality of Ca at different spraying times, fruits were harvested 7 days after a Ca treatment. Additionally, the mineral composition of kwifruit was determined at the stage of harvest ripeness. The results showed that the absorbality of Ca by kiwifruit from Ca spray decreased significantly with the progressing fruit development. The highest fruit Ca content was found when the fruit plants were sprayed at 35+80 DAFB and 35+80+120 DAFB, irrespectively of the location of an orchard. At a later Ca spraying application, the N content in kiwifruit significantly decreased, but the K and Mg content slightly increased. In contrast, the K/Ca, N/Ca, Mg/Ca and (K+Mg)/Ca ratios of CaCl2 sprayed fruits was lower than in the control and the ratio values were more balanced in the Ca treated fruit than in the control. Overall, three CaCl2 (15 g L-1) sprays could effectively improve the fruit quality by balancing the Ca ratio to other macronutrients. Therefore, Ca spray treatments could be a recommended treatment in growing cv. Hayward kiwifruit. © 2015, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.

Khodaparast S.A.,Guilan University | Mohammadi A.H.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Haghdel M.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Masigol H.,Guilan University
Mycological Progress | Year: 2016

The newly recognised powdery mildew species Phyllactinia takamatsui on Cotoneaster nummularius (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated. This species, collected in Kerman Province, Iran, is well characterised by its conidial morphology and rDNA ITS sequences clearly different from allied species. Conidia are broadly ellipsoid to subcylindrical, i.e. they are not clavate-spathuliform as in most Phyllactinia species. The rDNA ITS sequence analysis showed that this species is closely allied to other species described on hosts belonging to Rosaceae, such as Ph. mali and Ph. pyri-serotinae. The ITS sequence of P. takamatsui was 92 to 94 % similar to that of the closest known relatives. The new species is described in detail, illustrated and compared with other similar taxa. © 2016, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Shiri M.A.,Guilan University | Ghasemnezhad M.,Guilan University | Fatahi Moghadam J.,Horticultural Science Research Institute | Ebrahimi R.,Guilan University
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) spraying times and number of sprays on the changes in biochemical compounds of “Hayward” kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) during storage as well as at the shelf life. The vines in two different commercial kiwifruit orchards were sprayed with CaCl2 (15 g/L), one, two and three times in 35, 85 and 125 days after full bloom. Fruits were harvested at maturity stage and then were stored at 0C for 90 days and 5 additional days under simulated marketing conditions. The results showed that orchard location had significant effect on fruit biochemical compounds. With a few exceptions, one-time (early-, mid-, late-season) and twice CaCl2 sprays had no significant effects on kiwifruit quality characteristics. Thrice sprays significantly reduced respiration rate, ethylene production and polygalacturonase activity that lead to delay degradation of vitamin c, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, and maintained fruit sensory quality. Overall, thrice sprays of CaCl2 delayed fruit ripening processes and maintained fruit quality of “Hayward” kiwifruit. Practical Applications: As the importance of phytochemical content in the health benefits of fruits and vegetables is recognized, interest in the antioxidant activity, enzymes, and polyphenolic and phytochemical contents of kiwifruit has increased significantly in recent years. During cold storage, many physicochemical changes occur that significantly affect fruit quality. Polygalacturonase (PG) is a cell wall-bound enzyme which has been found to play a role in numerous plant developmental processes such as fruit ripening and softening. Considerable attention has been given to calcium (Ca) application to kiwifruit, since maintenance of relatively high Ca concentrations in fruit tissues results in better nutrients balance, maintaining cell wall stabilization and integrity, retards fruit respiration and ripening by lower rates of CO2 and C2H4 production, PG activity, softening, and finally extends storability. It should also be noted that the beneficial effects of preharvest Ca sprays depend on the time and number of treatments and orchard location. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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