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Oyama-Okubo N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tsuji T.,Horticultural Research Institute
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2013

Floral scents of tulip (Tulipa L.) cultivars are highly diverse, ranging from citrus, honey, or grassy to medicinal. To clarify the diversity of the quality of tulip floral scents, we analyzed the scent compounds of 51 tulip cultivars with characteristic scents. The major scent compounds were five monoterpenoids (eucalyptol, linalool, d-limonene, trans-β-ocimene, and α-pinene), four sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene, α-farnesene, geranyl acetone, and β-ionone), six benzenoids (acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 3,5-Dimethoxytoluene (DMT), methyl salicylate, and 2-phenylethanol), and five fatty acid derivatives (decanal, 2-hexenal, cis-3-hexenol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, and octanal). Tulip cultivars were classified into nine groups according to the composition of major scent components and sensory assessment of a living flower: group 1, anise; group 2, citrus; group 3, fruity; group 4, green; group 5, herbal; group 6, herbal-honey; group 7, rosy; group 8, spicy; and group 9, woody. © 2013.

Farag M.A.,Cairo University | El-Ahmady S.H.,Ain Shams University | Elian F.S.,Horticultural Research Institute | Wessjohann L.A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry
Phytochemistry | Year: 2013

The demand to develop efficient and reliable analytical methods for the quality control of herbal medicines and nutraceuticals is on the rise, together with an increase in the legal requirements for safe and consistent levels of active principles. Here, we describe an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) analysis for the comprehensive measurement of metabolites from three Cynara scolymus (artichoke) cultivars: American Green Globe, French Hyrious, and Egyptian Baladi. Under optimized conditions, 50 metabolites were simultaneously quantified and identified including: eight caffeic acid derivatives, six saponins, 12 flavonoids and 10 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define both similarities and differences among the three artichoke leaf cultivars. In addition, batches from seven commercially available artichoke market products were analysed and showed variable quality, particularly in caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoid and fatty acid contents. PCA analysis was able to discriminate between various preparations, including differentiation between various batches from the same supplier. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing UHPLC-MS based metabolite fingerprinting to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences in artichoke leaf extracts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AbouZid S.F.,Beni Suef University | Mohamed A.A.,Horticultural Research Institute
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2011

Background: This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt.Methods: Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire.Results: Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category.Conclusions: Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. © 2011 AbouZid and Mohamed; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ishii H.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Ishii H.,University of Tsukuba | Miyamoto T.,Horticultural Research Institute | Ushio S.,Chiba Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Kakishima M.,University of Tsukuba
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: Recently in Japan, isolates resistant to boscalid, a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI), have been detected in Corynespora cassiicola (Burk & Curt.) Wei and Podosphaera xanthii (Castaggne) Braun & Shishkoff, the pathogens causing Corynespora leaf spot and powdery mildew disease on cucumber, respectively. Resistant isolates of C. cassiicola are widely distributed and represent a serious problem in disease control at present. Novel SDHI fungicides, including fluopyram, are now under development. Results: The growth of very highly boscalid-resistant, highly resistant and sensitive isolates of C. cassiicola was strongly suppressed on fluopyram-amended YBA agar medium. Although boscalid and another SDHI, penthiopyrad, hardly controlled Corynespora leaf spot and powdery mildew on cucumber plants when very highly or highly boscalid-resistant isolates were employed for inoculation, fluopyram still exhibited excellent control efficacy against these resistant isolates as well as sensitive isolates of C. cassiicola and P. xanthii. Conclusion: Differential sensitivity to boscalid, penthiopyrad and fluopyram, clearly found in these two important pathogens of cucumber, may indicate involvement of a slightly distinct site of action for fluopyram from the two other SDHIs. This finding may lead to the discovery of unique SDHIs in the future. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Omran Y.A.M.M.,Horticultural Research Institute
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2011

Aims: Redglobe has become a popular table grape cultivar in Egypt. However, in warm climates the berries often fail to develop a full red color in addition to having lower total soluble solids (TSS) at harvest time. Here we evaluate the potential for enhancing the quality of Redglobe grapes with applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethanol under field conditions. Methods and results: Abscisic acid (300 mg/L) and/or ethanol (10% v/v) treatments were applied twice (10% and 75% of colored berries) for two seasons (2006 and 2007), and their effect on yield and fruit quality (TSS/acidity, anthocyanin content, firmness, and attachment force) was investigated. The application of ABA did not significantly affect yield when compared to the untreated control, whereas the ethanol treatment, alone or in combination with ABA, resulted in a significant yield increase. Total soluble solids and the ratio between TSS and acidity were increased by all treatments. The highest TSS/acidity ratio resulted from the ABA treatment due primarily to an 18% decrease in total acidity. In this regard, ABA was the most effective treatment. The total anthocyanin content in berry skins increased by approximately 48 and 38% with the ABA and ethanol treatments, respectively. Still, the highest anthocyanin content was obtained with the application of both ethanol and ABA (54% higher than in the untreated control). Berries that were treated with ethanol were markedly firmer and had higher attachment force than those of the other treatments. Conclusion: The results indicate that the combination of ABA and ethanol is more effective in improving the color of Redglobe grapes but may also increase production efficiency. However, the ethanol treatment alone was more effective in increasing yield and berry firmness and appears to be an alternative to ABA in improving fruit quality in general. Significance and impact of the study: The results obtained in this study will be useful to improve the fruit quality of Redglobe grapes in the field under warm conditions. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).

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