Horticultural Institute

Kasama, Japan

Horticultural Institute

Kasama, Japan
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Usami T.,Chiba University | Itoh M.,Horticultural Institute | Morii S.,Chiba University | Miyamoto T.,Ibaraki Prefecture Kennan Agriculture and Forestry Management Office | And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Although wilt diseases of various plants by Verticillium dahliae occur worldwide, Verticillium wilt of lettuce is relatively new and rare. In 2009, this disease appeared suddenly in commercial fields in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. To investigate the cause of the disease, we characterized each lettuce isolate for pathogenicity, mating types, and genetic characteristics and found two types of V. dahliae. A population that included at least two types of V. dahliae was the putative infection source of the disease. Effective management systems against V. dahliae isolates of different races and having different host ranges are necessary. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.

Nakamura T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Nakayama N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yamamoto R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Shimamura S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Plant Production Science | Year: 2010

The supernodulating variety "Sakukei 4", which has improved growth and yield, was recently developed. To evaluate its physiological traits related to the high productivity, we compared dry matter production, nitrogen (N) accumulation and N utilization in Sakukei 4 with those in the parental normally nodulating varieties, Enrei and Tamahomare, and a nonnodulating line, En1282, in pot experiments. The seed yield of Sakukei 4 was similar to that of Enrei and Tamahomare. Leaf area and relative ureide abundance in xylem sap were maintained for longer growth period in Sakukei 4 and Tamahomare than in Enrei. The total amount of nodule N2 fixation at maturity was also larger in Sakukei 4 and Tamahomare than in Enrei and En1282. In En1282 and Enrei, a larger part of N accumulated in leaves and stems before seed maturation was translocated to seeds during seed filling. However, Sakukei 4 and Tamahomare, more N tended to remain in leaves and stems at maturity. These observations suggested that the physiological traits of dry-matter accumulation and N utilization in Sakukei 4 were quite similar to those in Tamahomare, despite the difference in nodulation. N use efficiency for dry matter production (NUED) was lower in Sakukei 4 than in Enrei and Tamahomare, probably due to the energy cost for sustaining a greater number and mass of nodules. This observation indicated that the low NUED of Sakukei 4 impairs its productivity and seed yield, and therefore Sakukei 4 could not exceed Enrei or Tamahomare in seed productivity.

Harada T.,Horticultural Institute | Harada T.,Okayama University | Komagata T.,Horticultural Institute
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly | Year: 2014

During arching cultivation of roses in autumn and winter, long-day treatment using fluorescent lamps placed above the base of the plants slightly increased the number of cut flowers and also tended to increase the cut flower length in the first year. To further investigate these effects, the light condition of assimilation shoots was modified by supplemental lighting using white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) placed above the assimilation shoots. Supplemental lighting at two different levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), 100 and 250 μmol m-2 s-1, increased the number of cut flowers from the middle portion of the assimilation shoots, and the total number and weight of cut flowers according to the light intensity. Irradiation at 250 μmol m-2 s-1 PPFD also increased the number of cut flowers over 80 cm long and the length, weight and stem diameter of cut flowers over 60 cm long. Long-day treatment using fluorescent lamps did not affect the number of cut flowers in the second year. These results indicate that long-day treatment using fluorescent lamps can effectively increase the yield of cut rose flowers in some years, while supplemental lighting using white LEDs for assimilation shoots is a method of increasing it more strongly.

Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Torii Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Flower opening in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is the result of the enlargement of petal cells, which requires sugar metabolism. A cDNA encoding sucrose synthase (DcSUS1) was isolated from carnation petals as a candidate gene acting in the initial step of sugar metabolism in petal cells. DcSUS1 transcripts were detected abundantly in floral tissues of flowering carnation plants; the transcripts accumulated most in the petals and style followed by the ovary, whereas only small accumulation were found in stems, leaves, and calyces. Moreover, nearly constant accumulation of DcSUS1 transcripts was found in the petals during flower opening, fully open, and early senescence periods, whereas decreasing accumulation was detected in petals when senescence progressed. These findings suggested the involvement of DcSUS1 expression in petal cell growth during the opening of carnation flowers. JSHS © 2011.

Matsumoto Y.,Plant Biotechnology Institute | Matsumoto Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Ogawara T.,Horticultural Institute | Miyagi M.,Plant Biotechnology Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Fusarium wilt of melon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, is regarded as a severe disease worldwide. Many resources that are resistant to races 0, 1, and 2 have been reported; nevertheless, no resource of high resistance to either race 1,2w or 1,2y has been reported, although partial resistance has been found. Wild Cucumis species have been reported as genetic resources which have resistance to some diseases and pests of melon. This study identified novel sources of high resistance to race 1,2y in wild Cucumis species. In all, we tested 76 accessions belonging to 11 wild species of the genus Cucumis. After artificial inoculation, the disease severity in each plant was evaluated using a 0-3 disease severity scale (0 = no symptoms, 1 = beginning of yellowing symptom on leaves, 2 = leaves strongly affected, 3 = plant death). The disease index (DI) was calculated as DI = summation of (disease severity × number of plants in that disease severity) × 100/(3 × total number of plants). Accessions showing high resistance (DI = 0) were 34 among six species: C. africanus, C. anguria, C. metuliferus, C. prophetarum, C. subsericeus, and C. zeyheri. By contrast, most accessions in C. dipsaceus, C. meeusei, C. pustulatus, and C. sagittatus exhibited high susceptibility (DI = 80-100). Among these four species, no accession showed high resistance. This is the first report of genetic resources having high resistance to race 1,2y. To introduce this high resistance of race 1,2y to melon, we should investigate methods to overcome reproductive barriers to interspecific crosses between melon and wild Cucumis species. JSHS © 2011.

Okubo H.,Kyushu University | Hiramatsu M.,Kyushu University | Masuda J.-I.,Kyushu University | Masuda J.-I.,Horticultural Institute | And 2 more authors.
Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Lilium brownii var. colchesteri has been widely cultivated for long time by its perfect flower shape with its colour arrangement and fragrance. However, it did not receive enough attention in recent lily research programs, and information on the history and culture is lacking. An overall research project on this species including breeding, flowering control, propagation, virus-free bulb production, flower pigment and scent along with the surveys of old literature and arts to clarify the introduction history of the species into Europe and Japan, has been conducted. The major results are: 1) L. brownii var. colchesterii was probably introduced in about 1600 from Korea to Fukuoka, 2) there was confusion of the species nomenclature of this species in Europe at the time of introduction, 3) all individuals of our present collection in Japan and Korea are clones, 4) F1 hybrids of L. formosanum × L. brownii var. colchesteri obtained through cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture methods showed the early flowering traits of L. formosanum, but the flower shape and colour were similar to those of the pollen parent, 5) F2 seedlings were obtained from self-pollination of F, through ovary-slice culture, 6) control of flowering was successful by temperature treatments, 7) an in vitro propagation procedure was established, 8) virus-free bulblets were obtained by a combination of meristem tip culture and chemotherapy, and 9) pigments that characterize the flower colour were identified. ©2012 Global Science Books.

Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Murakoshi Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Hojo A.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Ethylene has an inhibitory effect on flowering in a short-day (SD) plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). In this study, we used a hexaploid chrysanthemum 'Sei-Marine' and found that its transgenic lines transformed with a mutated ethylene receptor gene mDG-ERS1(etr1-4), which conferred reduced ethylene sensitivity (J. Plant Biol. 51: 424-427, 2008), opened flowers earlier than the non-transformed control. We examined whether the accelerated flower induction in the transformant occurred through the enhanced expression of chrysanthemum genes homologous to FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a floral inducer gene in Arabidopsis. We cloned three cDNAs for FT homologs (CmFTL1, CmFTL2, and CmFTL3) from 'Sei-Marine'. CmFTL2 putatively encodes a non-functional gene product due to a frame shift caused by a 2 bp-deletion in the coding region. RT-PCR analysis revealed differential expression patterns of CmFTL genes in the transgenic and control lines, suggesting that these genes might be under the control of ethylene. CmFTL1/2 mRNA level was lower in a SD condition than a long-day (LD) condition. CmFTL3 mRNA accumulated abundantly under SD condition as compared with LD condition in the transgenic line. These results suggest the association of increased expression of CmFTL3 gene with the accelerated flowering in the transgenic line with reduced ethylene sensitivity. © 2012 Korean Society of Plant Biologists and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nomura Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

We cloned seven cDNAs coding for ubiquitin (polyubiquitin) (DcUbq1-7) from carnation petals: DcUbq1, 2, 3 encoded polyubiquitins consisting of five ubiquitin monomers; DcUbq4, three monomers and DcUbq5, 6, 7, a monomer. The 3'-UTR nucleotide sequences were separated into three groups; two were specific to DcUbq1 and DcUbq2, respectively, and the third was almost always common to other genes (DcUbq3-7). The transcript levels of DcUbq1 and DcUbq2 in petals fluctuated during flower opening, whereas those of DcUbq3-7 remained unchanged except for an increase in the last stage. On the other hand, during flower senescence, the transcript levels of DcUbq1 and DcUbq2 increased at later stages, and those of DcUbq3-7 remained almost constant during the process. Based on these findings, we suggest an association of ubiquitin gene expression with petal growth during flower opening and petal wilting during the senescence of carnation flowers through the degradation of specific proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, we showed the successful use of DcUbq3-7 transcripts as a normalizing standard in the determination of transcript levels of a target gene in senescing carnation petals, where massive degradation of RNA, such as actin mRNA and rRNA, usually occurs, causing inaccuracy in the estimation of transcript levels of interest. © 2012.

Mishima M.,Kyushu University | Sato S.,Horticultural Institute | Tsuda K.,2845 3 Oshita | Yukawa J.,Kyushu University
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2014

Hartigiola faggalli (Monzen), a cecidomyiid species that induces leaf galls on Fagus crenata Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), was studied to assess the degree of sexual isolation between known intraspecific populations derived from two different gall types. "Upper-type galls" form on the lateral veins of upper leaf surfaces, whereas "lower-type galls" develop between the lateral veins of lower leaf surfaces. The two populations were distinguished based on slight differences in theirDNAsequences. They coexisted in F. crenata forests. Emergence, swarming, mating, and oviposition occurred sequentially each day and almost simultaneously in both populations. Thus, they were not isolated from each other in time or space. However, 85% of 134 swarming males flew to females of the same population when responding to female sex pheromone. About 92% of 251 mating pairs were homogenic, and IPSI indicated a significantly homogenic mating. The female sex pheromone and male sensitivity to the pheromone seemed to differ between the two populations. After mating, females of each population oviposited their eggs only on either the upper or lower surfaces of fresh leaves. The strongly assortative mating combined with differences in pheromones and gall morphology indicates that the two populations are almost completely reproductively isolated and that they have diversified into the stage of sibling species. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

Khastini R.O.,Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University | Ogawara T.,Horticultural Institute | Sato Y.,Center for Conservation and Restoration Techniques National Research Institute for Cultural Properties | Narisawa K.,Ibaraki University
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Two soil-borne fungal endophytes almost completely suppressed the effects of a post-inoculated and virulent strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis when inoculated to axenically reared melon seedlings in Petri dishes. They were identified as Cadophora sp. on the basis of ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS 2 sequences and morphological characters and obtained from the roots of Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Hyphae of Cadophora sp. grew along the surface of the root and colonized root cells of the cortex and reduced the ingress of the Fusarium pathogen into adjacent cells. Melon seedlings pre-inoculated with Cadophora sp. were also grown in soil amended with the different N sources, nitrate or the amino acids leucine and valine, and glucose (final C:N ratio = 10:1). After 4 weeks, these seedlings were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. Only the endophyte-inoculated seedlings treated with valine could effectively inhibit the development of Fusarium wilt in two plots and reduced disease symptom development by 43 and 62 %. © 2014 KNPV.

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