Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Govindan K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Nelson S.J.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | David P.M.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2010

Piper nigrum L. seed is well known for its insecticidal properties against storage pests. P. nigrum dust formulation (Pn10D) was prepared by mixing pulverized seed powder of P. nigrum (10%) and fly ash (90%). Pn10D was tested against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Pn10D at 4.00 percent caused cent percent mortality of C. maculatus after 72 hr after the treatment. Pn10D 4.00 percent was most effective in reducing the oviposition. Egg hatchability of C. maculatus ranged between 57.12 (Pn10D 2.00 %) and 73.73% (Pn10D1.00 %). Only 7.00 beetles emerged from the seeds treated with Pn10D 4.00 per cent. Seed weight loss was 0.35 percent in Pn10D 4.00 and 3.50 percent. Germination ranged between 57.33 (Pn10D 0.50 %) and 93.33 percent (Pn10D 4.00 %). © JBiopest. Source


Thirugnanavel A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Karunakaran G.,Central Horticultural Experimental Station | Manoranjitham S.K.,TNAU
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The field experiment was conducted during 2008 - 2010 to study the effect of papaya ringspot virus - type P on growth, yield, and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties under PRSV infected conditions at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Significant variation was observed for disease score, DAS-ELISA, tree growth, fruit parameters, yield, and quality characters among the varieties evaluated. The results revealed that all the papaya varieties tested were ELISA positive and PRSV adversely affected the growth, yield and quality of papaya varieties. Among the cultivars evaluated, CP 50 performed better even under PRSV infected conditions and recorded the lowest disease score (1.9), ELISA value (0.198), highest plant height (255.60 cm), stem girth (41.76 cm), number of leaves (41.78), maximum yield (29.26 fruits/plant), dry papain production (8.3 g dry papain/fruit) and tyrosine unit (139.2). Source


Das S.C.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Poornima K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Seenivasan N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Banana (Musa spp.) which is truly a tropical treasure is being targeted by many pests and diseases. Worldwide, nematodes are considered a very important pest of bananas and plantains, for which control measures are urgently requirement. By damaging the plant root system, nematodes not only hamper the uptake of water and nutrients and consequently the growth and fruit production. Helicotylenchus multicinctus is considered to be an endoparasite in banana. It completes its life cycle within the root cortex where both the sexes, all juvenile stages and eggs can be found. It produces shallow superficial lesions in banana roots which resemble pustule like eruptions. The breeding programme and experiment was carried out at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Department of Fruit Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India and screened against H. multicinctus. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen pot containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. The hybrids were evaluated along with the reference cultivars viz., 'Rasthali' (AAB, syn. 'Silk') as the susceptible reference cultivar and 'Pisang Lilin' (AA) as the resistant reference cultivar. The screening was done based on the root and corm damage assessment as followed in INIBAP Technical Guidelines 7. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to H. multicinctus was studied under field as well as artificially inoculated pot conditions. The hybrid H 531 ('Poovan' 'Pisang Lilin') exhibited resistance, while hybrids H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-03-17, H-04-12, H-04-24, NPH-02-01 and H 510 showed tolerance. The role of biochemical contents like total henols and enzymatic activity like PO, PPO and PAL revealed that they had higher levels of activities in resistant and tolerant genotypes compare to susceptible and highly susceptible ones. The total phenol in the roots was estimated using Folin Ciocalteau reagent and measuring absorption at 660 nm in a spectrophotometer. For enzyme extraction, one gram of root sample per replicate was homogenized with 2 ml of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 4C. The supernatant was used as crude enzyme extract for assaying PO and PPO. Enzyme extracted in borate buffer was used for estimation of PAL. The PO activity was assessed according to Hammerschmidt and the PPO activity was assessed using the modified method of Mayer. The hybrid H 531 (AAB) took the shortest duration of 213.00 days for shooting and recorded a moderate bunch weight of 13.50 kg. Source


Das S.C.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Poornima K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Seenivasan N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Banana and plantains (Musa spp.), the second largest fruit crop in the world, are important staple foods in tropical regions of Africa, America, Asia and the Pacific. It is the most widely consumed and exported fruit in the world. Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the major biotic stresses affecting banana production. Breeding works carried out at the Department of Fruit Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. The susceptible check cultivar used was 'Rasthali' (AAB), while the resistant reference cultivar used 'Pisang Lilin' (AA). Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen part containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. Egg masses of M. incognita were picked from roots, allowed to hatch in a beaker of distilled water and the hatched juveniles (J2) were inoculated in the rhizosphere of the hybrids by soil injection method at 5,000 nematodes/pot. Same set of replicated banana hybrids were also maintained as uninoculated check. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to M. incognita was studied under field conditions as well as in controlled inoculation tests in pots. Hybrid H 531 ('Poovan' 'Pisang Lilin') was found to be resistant and six hybrids, H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-04-12, H-04-24 and NPH-02-01 were found to be tolerant to the root-knot nematode, M. incognita while the remaining were rated as susceptible and highly susceptible ones. Total phenols and PO, PPO, PAL and enzymatic activity of the hybrids in defense mechanism in response to nematode invasion indicated higher activities in resistant genotypes compared to susceptible ones. The total phenol in the roots was estimated using Folin Ciocalteau reagent and measuring absorption at 660 nm in a spectrophotometer. For enzyme extraction, one gram of root sample per replicate was homogenized with 2ml of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 4C. The supernatant was used as crude enzyme extract for assaying PO and PPO. Enzyme extracted in borate buffer was used for estimation of PAL. The PO activity was assessed according to Hammer-Schmidt and the PPO activity was assessed using the modified method of Mayer. Hybrid H 531 had the maximum biochemical content and enzyme activity among the hybrids included in this study. The resistant and tolerant hybrids had enhanced contents of total phenol, PO, PPO and PAL. Source


Kavino M.,Agricultural Research Station | Samiyappan R.,Center for Plant Molecular Biology | Karthiba L.,TNAU | Manoranjitham S.K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Asia, more specifically Southeast Asia and India, is the center of diversity for banana (Musa spp.). Banana cultivation is not free from problems, constraints and challenges, especially pests and diseases which cause huge economic losses to the farming community. Among these, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most important production constraints and is widespread in susceptible cultivars with 80-90% severity in many banana growing states in India. Apart from plant resistance, no sustainable solution has been found to control Fusarium wilt. Of late, tissue-culture bananas are increasingly being used by the Indian banana industry because they are the best source of disease and pestfree planting material and productivity on the farm can be greatly improved with their use. Nevertheless, tissue culture banana plantlets are found to be more susceptible to pests and diseases due to their pliable nature and lack of withstanding in the natural environment. These problems may be overcome by the reintroduction of microorganisms or their mixtures in order to protect them against diseases, improved establishment as well as overall performance. Plant growth and disease development were tested on the disease-susceptible cultivar 'Red Banana' (AAA) after Fusarium infection of tissue culture plantlets bacterized in vitro (by coculturing with the bacterium) and non-bacterized plantlets. Results revealed that significant differences in both disease suppression and plant growth were obtained between in vitro bacterized and non-bacterized plantlets. Among the treatments, banana plantlets treated with mixture of bacterial strains viz., EPB 10+EPB 56+Pf1 was significantly effective in reducing Foc incidence under glass house conditions over control. In glass house experiments, expression of defence related enzymes was more in the plants treated with consortium of bacterial strains than the control plants. The morphological and physiological characters were also well pronounced in the consortium of bacterial strains viz., EPB 10+EPB 56+Pf1 treated plantlets indicating its plant growth promoting nature. The artificial inoculation method (in vitro co-culturing of plantlets with the bacterium) provided a foundational understanding of ecological enrichment to control banana wilt disease in future. Source

Discover hidden collaborations