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Theurl M.C.,Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL | Theurl M.C.,Klagenfurt University | Hortenhuber S.J.,Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL | Hortenhuber S.J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

The adaption of historic European cultivation techniques for unheated winter vegetable production has gained momentum during the last years in Austria. Studies that evaluate ecological and socio-economic sustainability-factors of these production techniques are scarce. In this study, we analyze the greenhouse gas emissions along vegetable supply chains based on a life cycle approach and investigate factors of the socio-economic system towards future market diffusion of these new-old technologies based on the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data of the supply-chains of lettuce, spinach, scallions and red radish was collected from field trials in different climatic regions in Austria and compared to existing commercial systems in Austria and Italy. The results show, that unheated winter vegetable production is feasible. Greenhouse gas emissions of unheated vegetables are lower with 0.06–0.12 kg CO2 equivalent versus 0.61–0.64 kg CO2 equivalent per kg fresh product crops from heated systems. Due to small packaging units unheated vegetables show maxima of 0.58 kg CO2 equivalent per kg product. Heated products were outreached by two times when individual shopping trips to the farm were taken into account. Keeping salad frost-free was not found to contribute to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional systems. The analysis reveals that a diffusion of unheated winter harvest systems depend primarily on 11 interdepending socio-economic factors. An innovative subsidy system and the creation of a positive image of winter harvest from unheated vegetables production together with an increased utilization rate of polytunnel areas and the consultancy for producers and processors are the most influential factors towards a sustainable market diffusion of winter harvest produce. © 2017 The Authors

Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Poornima K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Velalazan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Seenivasan N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Twenty four banana (Musa) hybrids developed by crossing nematode resistant male parents viz., Pisang lilin, Anaikomban, Pisang Jari Buaya, Ambalakadali, Rose, H-56, H-201 and Yangambi KM5 with commercial triploid bananas viz., Karpooravalli, Poovan, Hill banana, Manoranjitham and Rasthali were screened for their reaction to spiral nematode Helicotylenchus multicinctus under field and pot conditions. The hybrids H 516 and H 531 were resistant, while the hybrids H 511, H 534, H 537, H 571, H 572 and H 589 were tolerant. Among the resistant hybrids, H 516 and H 531 produce good bunch weights. H 504, H 515, H 529, H 530, H 532, H 540, H 542, H 547, H 548, H 556, H 563, H 564, H 573 and H 576 were susceptible and H 508 was highly susceptible. The resistant hybrids had enhanced contents of total phenol, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. The overall evaluation of 24 parthenocarpic Musa hybrids led to identification of the hybrid H 531 with high yield potential as well as increased resistance to H. multicinctus. © 2014, Indian Agricultural Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Kavino M.,Agricultural Research Station | Samiyappan R.,Center for Plant Molecular Biology | Karthiba L.,TNAU | Manoranjitham S.K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Asia, more specifically Southeast Asia and India, is the center of diversity for banana (Musa spp.). Banana cultivation is not free from problems, constraints and challenges, especially pests and diseases which cause huge economic losses to the farming community. Among these, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most important production constraints and is widespread in susceptible cultivars with 80-90% severity in many banana growing states in India. Apart from plant resistance, no sustainable solution has been found to control Fusarium wilt. Of late, tissue-culture bananas are increasingly being used by the Indian banana industry because they are the best source of disease and pestfree planting material and productivity on the farm can be greatly improved with their use. Nevertheless, tissue culture banana plantlets are found to be more susceptible to pests and diseases due to their pliable nature and lack of withstanding in the natural environment. These problems may be overcome by the reintroduction of microorganisms or their mixtures in order to protect them against diseases, improved establishment as well as overall performance. Plant growth and disease development were tested on the disease-susceptible cultivar 'Red Banana' (AAA) after Fusarium infection of tissue culture plantlets bacterized in vitro (by coculturing with the bacterium) and non-bacterized plantlets. Results revealed that significant differences in both disease suppression and plant growth were obtained between in vitro bacterized and non-bacterized plantlets. Among the treatments, banana plantlets treated with mixture of bacterial strains viz., EPB 10+EPB 56+Pf1 was significantly effective in reducing Foc incidence under glass house conditions over control. In glass house experiments, expression of defence related enzymes was more in the plants treated with consortium of bacterial strains than the control plants. The morphological and physiological characters were also well pronounced in the consortium of bacterial strains viz., EPB 10+EPB 56+Pf1 treated plantlets indicating its plant growth promoting nature. The artificial inoculation method (in vitro co-culturing of plantlets with the bacterium) provided a foundational understanding of ecological enrichment to control banana wilt disease in future.

Thirugnanavel A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Karunakaran G.,Central Horticultural Experimental Station | Manoranjitham S.K.,TNAU
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The field experiment was conducted during 2008 - 2010 to study the effect of papaya ringspot virus - type P on growth, yield, and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties under PRSV infected conditions at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Significant variation was observed for disease score, DAS-ELISA, tree growth, fruit parameters, yield, and quality characters among the varieties evaluated. The results revealed that all the papaya varieties tested were ELISA positive and PRSV adversely affected the growth, yield and quality of papaya varieties. Among the cultivars evaluated, CP 50 performed better even under PRSV infected conditions and recorded the lowest disease score (1.9), ELISA value (0.198), highest plant height (255.60 cm), stem girth (41.76 cm), number of leaves (41.78), maximum yield (29.26 fruits/plant), dry papain production (8.3 g dry papain/fruit) and tyrosine unit (139.2).

Govindan K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Nelson S.J.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | David P.M.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2010

Piper nigrum L. seed is well known for its insecticidal properties against storage pests. P. nigrum dust formulation (Pn10D) was prepared by mixing pulverized seed powder of P. nigrum (10%) and fly ash (90%). Pn10D was tested against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Pn10D at 4.00 percent caused cent percent mortality of C. maculatus after 72 hr after the treatment. Pn10D 4.00 percent was most effective in reducing the oviposition. Egg hatchability of C. maculatus ranged between 57.12 (Pn10D 2.00 %) and 73.73% (Pn10D1.00 %). Only 7.00 beetles emerged from the seeds treated with Pn10D 4.00 per cent. Seed weight loss was 0.35 percent in Pn10D 4.00 and 3.50 percent. Germination ranged between 57.33 (Pn10D 0.50 %) and 93.33 percent (Pn10D 4.00 %). © JBiopest.

Suchindra R.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Sankaranarayanan R.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Nainar P.,Horticultural College and Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

An e×periment was conducted to evaluate the tomato hybrids under four growing environments for quality characters. The results showed that the hybrid Athyla grown under open condition (T4) recorded ma×imum total soluble solids (4.120 bri×), ascorbic acid (37.24 mg/100 g) and acidity (0.90%) during season II. However, the lycopene content (47.32 mg/100 g) was at the highest in the fruit of hybrid Valiente raised under shade net house (T 3) during season I.

Suchindra R.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Sankaranarayanan R.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Nainar P.,Horticultural College and Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

An e×periment was under taken to study the influence of four growing environments viz., screen house, glass house, shade net house and open condition on various yield characters and to find out a suitable environment for two tomato hybrids viz., Athyla and Valiente. The results showed that among the four growing environments shade net house performed good for the hybrid Valiente recorded ma×imum plant height (2.04 m), number of fruits per cluster (4.28), higher fruit setting rate (83.08 per cent), ma×imum yield per plant (2.03 kg) and single fruit weight (87.50 g) during season I.

Priyanka N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Dorajeerao A.V.D.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Sudhavani V.,Horticultural College and Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2015

The present study was conducted during the year 2014-15 at HCRI, Venkataramannagudem. The juices used in the study were those obtained from mango, grapes and pineapple blended in different proportions with jamun juice. These juice blends were utilized for the preparation of RTS and were evaluated for their quality throughout the acceptable period of storage. Colour, TSS, acidity, pH, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars total sugars and overall acceptability were observed throughout the storage period. The optical density of the beverages, acidity, reducing sugars and total sugars increased continuously during storage period, while pH, non-reducing sugars decreased during the storage period. The decrease in organoleptic acceptability was due to the change in the composition of these parameters. The RTS prepared from 75% of jamun juice blended with 25% grape juice had highest overall acceptability among all the combinations. However, all these RTS beverages were acceptable up to 90 days of storage period.

Priyanka N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Dorajeerao A.V.D.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Sudhavani V.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Umakrishna K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2015

A post harvest study was conducted at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Venkataramannagudem in order to find out best proportion of jamun based blends with mango, grapes and pineapple to preserve in the form of squash beverages. The blended squash beverages of jamun with mango, pineapple and grapes were analysed for phsico-chemical composition and sensory quality at monthly interval for four months of storage. The density, TSS, total sugars and acidity were found to have increased during the storage. The pH, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid content and the organoleptic scores for taste and flavour were decreased sturdily and significantly. Among all the treatments the highest overall acceptability was achieved by the squash prepared from 75% jamun juice blended with 25% grape juice with having 1.186 g cm-3 of density, 4.35 of pH, 46.37 °B of TSS, 37.62% of total sugars, 0.92% of acidity and 17.58 mg/100 ml of ascorbic acid content. The various physicochemical and sensory parameters obtained during the course of investigation and the data obtained along with relevant discussion are presented in the full text of this paper.

Das S.C.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Poornima K.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Seenivasan N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Banana (Musa spp.) which is truly a tropical treasure is being targeted by many pests and diseases. Worldwide, nematodes are considered a very important pest of bananas and plantains, for which control measures are urgently requirement. By damaging the plant root system, nematodes not only hamper the uptake of water and nutrients and consequently the growth and fruit production. Helicotylenchus multicinctus is considered to be an endoparasite in banana. It completes its life cycle within the root cortex where both the sexes, all juvenile stages and eggs can be found. It produces shallow superficial lesions in banana roots which resemble pustule like eruptions. The breeding programme and experiment was carried out at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Department of Fruit Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India and screened against H. multicinctus. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen pot containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. The hybrids were evaluated along with the reference cultivars viz., 'Rasthali' (AAB, syn. 'Silk') as the susceptible reference cultivar and 'Pisang Lilin' (AA) as the resistant reference cultivar. The screening was done based on the root and corm damage assessment as followed in INIBAP Technical Guidelines 7. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to H. multicinctus was studied under field as well as artificially inoculated pot conditions. The hybrid H 531 ('Poovan' 'Pisang Lilin') exhibited resistance, while hybrids H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-03-17, H-04-12, H-04-24, NPH-02-01 and H 510 showed tolerance. The role of biochemical contents like total henols and enzymatic activity like PO, PPO and PAL revealed that they had higher levels of activities in resistant and tolerant genotypes compare to susceptible and highly susceptible ones. The total phenol in the roots was estimated using Folin Ciocalteau reagent and measuring absorption at 660 nm in a spectrophotometer. For enzyme extraction, one gram of root sample per replicate was homogenized with 2 ml of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 4C. The supernatant was used as crude enzyme extract for assaying PO and PPO. Enzyme extracted in borate buffer was used for estimation of PAL. The PO activity was assessed according to Hammerschmidt and the PPO activity was assessed using the modified method of Mayer. The hybrid H 531 (AAB) took the shortest duration of 213.00 days for shooting and recorded a moderate bunch weight of 13.50 kg.

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