Bougher T.,Southwest Research Institute |
Khalek I.A.,Southwest Research Institute |
Trevitz S.,Volvo |
Akard M.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010
This paper summarizes the validation testing of the Horiba Instruments OBS-2200 gaseous portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for in-use compliance testing per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065.920 ($1065.920). The qualification process included analyzer verifications as well as engine testing on a model-year 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine produced by Volvo Powertrain. The measurements of brake-specific emissions with the OBS-2200 were compared to those of a CFR Part 1065-compliant CVS test cell over a series of not-to-exceed (NTE) events. The OBS-2200 passed all linearity verifications and analyzer checks required of PEMS. Engine test validation was achieved for all three regulated gaseous emissions (CO, NMHC, and NO X) per 40 CFR Part1065.920(b)(5)(i), which requires a minimum of 91 percent of the measurement allowance adjusted deltas to be less than or equal to zero. The PEMS correlated much better to the laboratory than was necessary to satisfy the verification criteria with 100 percent of the measurements passing for all constituents. The average brake-specific CO 2 and NO X values both fell within five percent of the laboratory values, while the CO and NMHC levels were both below three percent of the 2007 standard as measured by both systems. Several different time alignment techniques for adjusting the alignment of the engine electronic control module (ECM) parameters, gas concentrations, and exhaust flow signals are discussed as well as the CO 2 and NO X measurement sensitivity to misalignment. A one second difference in time alignment between gas concentration and exhaust flow was found to change the brake specific emissions by as much as ten percent for a single NTE event and five percent for an average of all NTE events. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.
Germann S.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011
In the past, static brake tests involved either pneumatic or hydraulic lever arm concepts, which allowed high torque loads on main and parking brakes in standstill. However modern and realistic test procedures like the analysis in pull away scenarios (stick - slip effect) or the so-called creep and groan test require a full rotational degree of freedom for the brake in the test cell. In order to provide this functionality an additional motor and gearbox is usually added to the brake test cell. Providing high gear ratio, this motor allows high torque at low speed for multiple rotations of the brake. Because of the speed limit, this motor-gearbox combination cannot be used for regular test procedures. Another limiting disadvantage of this concept is the usage of a coupling device to add or remove this motor from the shaft. This technique does not allow realistic test profiles. First, because the coupling/decoupling process requires some time in which the brake may cool down and second because the coupling process creates torque traces on the brake. A solution that uses the main drive also for static brake testing would overcome these disadvantages. Although the obstacle lays in the fact that DC motors cannot hold high torque rates at standstill for a longer period of time. The concept of variable frequency drives together with asynchronous motors offer now a new technique. This paper describes the usage of these motor drive concepts for static brake testing and the problem of low speed measurement at or near standstill as well as the related disharmonies in torque and speed. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.
Nevius T.A.,Horiba Instruments Inc. |
Rooney R.T.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2010
A Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) over dilutes the exhaust gas sample when testing Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). This is because the CVS continues to fill the sample bag when the engine is shutdown. With a PHEV, it is possible to complete an FTP test with the engine running less than 20% of the time, resulting in a CVS bag dilution ratio in the range of 100 to 300. The CVS dilution ratio should be in the range of 5-25 for accurate results. At higher dilution ratios, the gas concentrations of CO, NOx and THC approach the ambient background level in the test cell. At a dilution of 100, the CO2 concentration in the sample bag is about 0.13%, which is only 3 times the air background concentration. The measurement errors caused by over dilution create errors of 10% to 30% in the calculated mass of CO2, CO, and NOx. Estimated errors for THC are in the range of 200% Many of the limitations of a CVS can be eliminated by using a partial flow sampling system, such as a bag minidilutor (BMD), which maintains a constant dilution ratio of 5:1 at all exhaust flow rates. A BMD dilutes the exhaust gas with pure air, so no background correction for ambient air contamination is necessary. Testing a PHEV still poses measurement issues with a BMD, because the internal combustion engine may not run long enough during a test for the BMD to acquire a volume of exhaust gas sample sufficient for the gas analyzers to read accurately. Modifications have been made to the CVS and BMD hardware and software to improve the measurement accuracy for PHEV testing. Vehicle emission data obtained with the modified test equipment is compared to data obtained previously with standard CVS and BMD sampling systems. © 2010 SAE International.
Wei Q.,Horiba Instruments Inc. |
Rooney R.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010
On-board Particulate Matter (PM) mass calibration (OB-PMMC) is an approach to calibrate a real-time PM sensor with the gravimetric PM mass being collected on a conventional filter. The real-time PM sensor is integrated in a PM sample system and takes sample upstream of the sample filter. The PM mass collected on the filter is determined either by weighing the filter or by using analytical approaches. A unique calibration coefficient for each sample filter is generated for converting the PM real-time signal to the real-time PM mass emission. This calibration approach can be used to modify Constant Volume Samplers (CVS) and laboratory Partial Flow Sample Systems (PFSS), etc., into real-time PM mass measurement instruments for engine or vehicle exhaust PM measurement. The same technique may also be used to measure real-time PM concentration in the atmosphere under some circumstance. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.
Zummer R.,Horiba Instruments Inc. |
Nevius T.,Horiba Instruments Inc. |
Porter S.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate. Techniques to eliminate or minimize the condensation of the ammonia salts are presented, including removing gaseous ammonia on a phosphoric acid (scrubbing) filter, and maintaining the NOx analyzer and sample lines at a temperature greater than the melting point of the ammonia salts. A review of the temperature dependent crystallization of ammonium nitrate provides an estimate of the condensation rate based on gas concentrations and temperatures. © 2016 SAE International.
Newberger N.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012 | Year: 2012
The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is becoming a sustainable vehicle architecture with the US government pouring 14.4 bilUon' into stimulus projects that support drivetrains of new vehicles that are series hybrid, parallel hybrid, or completely battery powered (BEV). Both the series hybrid and BEV have 100% of propulsion energy coming from electricity. The series hybrid uses an internal combustion engine (ICE) to power a generator that produces electricity. The parallel hybrid powers the vehicle by a mechanical combination of electric motors and ICE. In all cases, the drivetrain needs an electric motor, a traction battery and an auxihary method of obtaining electricity. These auxiliary power units (APU) are typically a downsized, highly efficient ICE or fuel cell for a zero emissions alternative. Horiba's Virtual Engine (VE) and Virtual Battery (VB) are HIL^ products that allow electric motor based drivetrain development without waiting for the new battery pack and ICE to become available. Relevant product features for HEV development are discussed in terms of form function, and verification with data.2 HIL commonly referred to as hardware in the loop where something physical is used to create power, or run programs, or create a response but inputs and outputs are simulated from a mathematical model of their real end use condition.
Gilmore A.M.,Horiba Instruments Inc.
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014
Contemporary spectrofluorimeters comprise exciting light sources, excitation and emission monochromators, and detectors that without correction yield data not conforming to an ideal spectral response. The correction of the spectral properties of the exciting and emission light paths first requires calibration of the wavelength and spectral accuracy. The exciting beam path can be corrected up to the sample position using a spectrally corrected reference detection system. The corrected reference response accounts for both the spectral intensity and drift of the exciting light source relative to emission and/or transmission detector responses. The emission detection path must also be corrected for the combined spectral bias of the sample compartment optics, emission monochromator, and detector. There are several crucial issues associated with both excitation and emission correction including the requirement to account for spectral band-pass and resolution, optical band-pass or neutral density filters, and the position and direction of polarizing elements in the light paths. In addition, secondary correction factors are described including (1) subtraction of the solvent's fluorescence background, (2) removal of Rayleigh and Raman scattering lines, as well as (3) correcting for sample concentration-dependent inner-filter effects. The importance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration and correction protocols is explained in light of valid intra-and interlaboratory studies and effective spectral qualitative and quantitative analyses including multivariate spectral modeling. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Horiba Instruments Inc. | Date: 2010-12-23
A dynamometer may be configured to simulate the rotating inertial characteristics of a wheel-tire assembly slipping relative to a road surface and having rotating inertial characteristics different than the rotating inertial characteristics of the wheel-tire assembly being simulated.
Horiba Instruments Inc. | Date: 2010-12-23
A test stand may include a clutch operatively arranged with a dynamometer and a flywheel. The test stand may further include a controller configured to control the clutch to decouple a rotating inertia of the dynamometer from a rotating inertia of the flywheel such that the rotating inertia of the flywheel exhibits a desired rotating inertia.
Horiba Instruments Inc. | Date: 2013-05-24
A system of sampling a fluid comprises a fluid separator having a central axis. The fluid separator includes an insulating sleeve. In addition the fluid separator includes a separator assembly coaxially disposed within the sleeve. Further, the fluid separator includes an annulus radially disposed between the sleeve and the separator assembly. The separator assembly includes a conduit, a support rod coaxially disposed within the conduit, and a plurality of separator members coupled to the support rod within the conduit.