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Berg W.A.,Hopkins Inc. | Berg W.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Madsen K.S.,Certus International Inc. | Schilling K.,Boca Raton Regional Hospital | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to compare the performance of positron emission mammography (PEM) with that of MRI in the evaluation of the contralateral breast of women with newly diagnosed cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Four hundred seventy-two women with newly diagnosed breast cancer offered breast-conserving surgery from September 2006 through November 2008 consented to participate in a multicenter protocol. Participants underwent contrastenhanced breast MRI and 18F-FDG PEM in randomized order, and the examinations were interpreted independently. The performance characteristics of the imaging modalities were compared using the McNemar test and generalized estimating equations. A retrospective blinded review of PEM images was performed by four experienced observers to understand the reasons for false-negatives. RESULTS. Three hundred sixty-seven women (median age, 58 years; age range, 26-93 years) eligible for analysis completed the appropriate follow-up for study inclusion. Fifteen women (4.1%) were found to have contralateral cancer (11 invasive [mean tumor size, 12 mm; median, 10 mm; range, 1-22 mm] and four ductal carcinoma in situ). Of the 15 cases, both PEM and MRI showed three (20%), only MRI showed 11 (73%), and one (6.7%) was found at prophylactic mastectomy. MRI sensitivity at 14 of 15 (93%; 95% CI, 66-94) was higher than PEM at three of 15 (20%; 95% CI, 5.3-46) (p < 0.001). On PEM, three additional cancers were seen prospectively but were considered probably benign and two other cancers were visible in retrospect at the site. Of 352 contralateral breasts without cancer, findings were negative or benign on PEM for 335 (95.2%; 95% CI, 92.2-97.0), which is more than MRI at 315 (89.5%; 95% CI, 85.7-92.4; p = 0.002). The positive predictive value (PPV) of PEM-prompted biopsies (3/14 [21%]) was not significantly different from the PPV of MRI (15/54 [28%], p = 0.58). On blinded retrospective PEM review of the 15 contralateral cancers, PEM findings for 11 (73%) were considered suspicious. CONCLUSION. Contralateral cancer was found in 15 of 367 women (4.1%), with MRI showing 14 (93%). Eleven contralateral cancers (73%) were visible on PEM, but only three (20%) were recognized prospectively as suspicious. Lesions that are visible on PEM should be viewed as suspicious unless known to be benign by prior breast imaging or biopsy. © American Roentgen Ray Society.

Azana J.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Park Y.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Park Y.,Hopkins Inc. | Li F.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Li F.,University of Sydney
Optics Communications | Year: 2011

This paper reviews recent work on a new group of linear and self-referenced techniques for full (amplitude and phase) characterization of fast optical signals based upon the concept of photonic differentiation, generally referred to as 'phase reconstruction using optical ultrafast differentiation' (PROUD). These techniques are particularly well adapted for applications in the context of fiber-optics telecommunications. PROUD methods can be implemented using simple and practical optical fiber-based setups and they rely on a direct, non-iterative phase recovery numerical algorithm. They can be used over a very wide range of pulse time durations, from the sub-picosecond to the nanosecond regime, and they can provide measurements in a single shot and in real time with power sensitivities down to the microwatt level. Previously reported PROUD methods are treated here under a unified, single framework, facilitating their analysis and comparison. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sausen M.,Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics | Leary R.J.,Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics | Jones S.,Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics | Jones S.,Hopkins Inc. | And 15 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Neuroblastomas are tumors of peripheral sympathetic neurons and are the most common solid tumor in children. To determine the genetic basis for neuroblastoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing (6 cases), exome sequencing (16 cases), genome-wide rearrangement analyses (32 cases) and targeted analyses of specific genomic loci (40 cases) using massively parallel sequencing. On average, each tumor had 19 somatic alterations in coding genes (range of 3-70). Among genes not previously known to be involved in neuroblastoma, chromosomal deletions and sequence alterations of the chromatin-remodeling genes ARID1A and ARID1B were identified in 8 of 71 tumors (11%) and were associated with early treatment failure and decreased survival. Using tumor-specific structural alterations, we developed an approach to identify rearranged DNA fragments in sera, providing personalized biomarkers for minimal residual disease detection and monitoring. These results highlight the dysregulation of chromatin remodeling in pediatric tumorigenesis and provide new approaches for the management of patients with neuroblastoma. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Malacarne A.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Ashrafi R.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Park Y.,Hopkins Inc. | Azana J.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

We propose and experimentally demonstrate asynchronous optical differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) pattern recognition usingafully reconfigurable technique. The proposed method uses optical phase-to-bipolar intensity conversion through all-optical differentiation in conjunction with an incoherent time-spectrum convolution system where the pattern to be recognized is implemented directly in the spectral domain through optical amplitude-only linear filtering. Full reconfigurability in terms of bit rate, pattern sequence, and pattern length is achieved using electronically programmable optical filters. We demonstrate dynamically switching recognition of different 64 bit patterns in a continuous 12Gb/s DPSK pseudorandom optical bit stream with contrast ratio up to 3:8 dB. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Hopkins Inc. | Date: 2014-09-15

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