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Saint-Georges-sur-Loire, France

Auger J.,University of Paris Descartes | Sermondade N.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Seine Saint Denis | Eustache F.,University of Paris Descartes
Basic and Clinical Andrology

Background: Except for testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, baseline data on semen quality in case of cancers as well as systemic pathologies of the young adult are scarce or based on low sample size. Methods: Semen quality in patients having testicular cancer (TGCT, n = 2315), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 1175), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 439), leukemia (L, n = 360), sarcoma (S, n = 208), brain tumour (BT, n = 40), Behcet's disease (Behcet's, n = 68) or multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 73) was studied and compared to that of 1448 fertile men candidates for sperm donation (CSD) and 208 partners of pregnant women (PPW). All samples were studied following the same methodology in a single laboratory. Post freezing and thawing semen characteristics were also studied. Results: The percentage of normozoospermic men was only 37 % for L patients and lower than 60 % for TGCT, NHL, S and BT. The level of sperm production was differently decreased according to pathologies, the median total sperm count in TC and L patients being four times lower (p < 0.01 when compared to CSD and PPW). The lowest percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa was found for L and BT patients (both, p < 0.01 compared to CSD and PPW). The percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was also reduced in cancer patients, especially in BT patients. Progressive motility after thawing in patients was about half that observed among candidates for sperm donation. In almost half of the semen of patients with testicular cancer or leukemia, the total number of motile spermatozoa per straw was less than 0.5 × 106 compared to 4.3 × 106 in CSD. Conclusions: The present data confirm on large series the deleterious impact of various cancers of the young adult on semen quality, establishing thus baseline data for future studies. Owing to the post-thaw quality of the frozen straws, future fertility projects for the majority of the patients studied (in case there is no post-treatment recovery of spermatogenesis) should necessitate an ICSI to provide the best chance of paternity whatever the fertility check-up in the female partner. © 2016 Auger et al. Source

Monsuez J.-J.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Seine Saint Denis
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases

Despite continuous improvements in management of patients with cancer, cardiac side-effects still account for a substantial limitation of chemotherapy. Evaluation of cardiac toxicity in patients includes consideration of biomarkers such as cardiac troponins and B-type natriuretic peptides, together with non-invasive imaging in the form of 2D-, 3D-, or strain-echocardiography, multiple gated radionuclide angiography, quantitative gated blood-pool SPECT, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. These approaches differ from each other with regards to availability, accuracy, sensitivity to detect early stages of cardiac injury, individual reliability, ease of use in a longitudinal follow-up perspective, and to related cost-effectiveness. Improving prevention of these cardiac side-effects depends on several, currently unresolved issues. Early detection and quantification of cardiac damage is required to adapt chemotherapy in progress for optimal management of patients. Whether increased availability of myocardial strain imaging and repeat blood biomarkers determinations will reliably and consistently achieve these goals remain to be confirmed. Also, protective approaches to reduce cardiac toxicity of anticancer drugs should be reconsidered according to the recently restricted approval for use of dexrazoxane. Anthracycline-based regimens, encapsulated anthracyclines and non-anthracycline regimens should be revisited with regards to antitumour efficacy and cardiac toxicity. Cardiovascular drugs that proved effective in prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity in experimental models should be investigated in clinical trials. Finally, the efficacy of cardiovascular drugs that have already been tested in clinical settings should be confirmed and compared with each other in patients in increased numbers. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Fihman V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val Of Seine | Le Monnier A.,Center Hospitalier Of Versailles | Corvec S.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Corvec S.,University of Nantes | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Infection

Objectives: Isolation rates of unusual non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (i.e. other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) are increasing but studies are limited to few observations. We aimed at determining risk factors for infection and influence of antibiotic treatment on the outcome. Methods: A six-month (December 1, 2008-May 31, 2009) prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in nine French teaching hospitals. Characteristics of patients colonized or infected by unusual NF-GNB, adequacy of antimicrobial therapies, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Analysis of 158 patients (median age, 62.7 years) was conducted. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the predominant bacterial species isolated (39%) followed by Achromobacter group (15%) and non-. baumannii Acinetobacter species (13%). Compared to colonized patients, infected ones were more frequently immunocompromised [relative risk (RR) = 1.63, (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.60, P = 0.05)], hospitalized within the last three months [RR 1.67 (95% CI 1.09-2.58, P = 0.02)], admitted in an intensive care unit with central venous catheter [RR 1.74 (95% CI 1.15-2.63, P = 0.01)]. The overall hospital mortality concerned 28 patients (18%) but no association with inadequate antimicrobial treatment was found except in the group of S. maltophilia infected cases [RR 2.81 (95% CI 1.01-7.83, P = 0.02)]. Conclusion: Naturally carbapenems-resistant S. maltophilia is the main unusual NF-GNB pathogen in hospitalized patients, leading to inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment at the time of emerging extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria. © 2012. Source

Falgarone G.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Seine Saint Denis
European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies

The role of stress in the pathophysiology of Graves' disease is suggested by several clinical observations, by recent advances in immunology and by better understanding of autoimmune diseases which provides new insights into potential effects of stress hormones on T helper cell imbalance involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Stress management should therefore be an important part of the treatment of Graves' disease, as stress reduction may improve the effect of therapy. However, this field still requires interventional data to support stress management in the treatment of Graves' disease. Source

Auger J.,Paris Observatory | Auger J.,University of Paris Descartes | Jouannet P.,University of Paris Descartes | Eustache F.,University of Paris Descartes | Eustache F.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Seine Saint Denis
Human Reproduction

STUDY QUESTION: Can a standardized assessment of abnormal human sperm morphology provide additional useful information by identifying men with more severe disturbances in different types of abnormalities? SUMMARY ANSWER: Definition-based categorization of sperm head, midpiece and tail defects has shown how differently these abnormalities are distributed in fertile men and other groups of men, thus providing high and low thresholds, a starting point for diagnosis or research purposes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several recent studies have reported indisputable genetic origins for various sperm defects. A few studies have also identified associations between environmental factors and low percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Nevertheless, with the exception of rare situations in which the vast majority of spermatozoa have specific, easily characterized defects, such as 'globozoospermia', little attention has been paid to the description and precise quantification of human sperm abnormalities. The lack of standardization in the phenotyping of sperm morphological defects by conventional microscopy is a limiting factor for diagnosis and for intra- or inter-observer or centre consistency in studies investigating the causal factors and possible functional consequences of the abnormalities detected. There are currently no baseline data for abnormalities of sperm morphology based on a standardized classification, in the general population, among fertile or other groups of men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This study is based on detailed sperm abnormality datasets acquired by a standardized classification method, from several groups of men, over the same 5-year period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We studied cross-sectional data from fertile men (n = 926), male partners from infertile couples (n = 1747) and testicular cancer patients (n = 239). We used a standardized classification to analyse Shorr-stained slides, taking into account all the abnormalities encountered. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Most sperm defects were significantly more frequent in infertile than in fertile men, with 20-30% of infertile men having frequencies of abnormalities above the 95th percentile in fertile men for 9 out of the 15 categories of abnormalities. Interestingly, several head abnormalities were significantly more frequent in patients with testicular cancer than in infertile men, highlighting the particular impact of this condition on sperm morphogenesis. We used the 95th percentile in fertile men as the lower threshold and the 99th percentile in infertile men as an extreme upper threshold, for the classification of morphological abnormality frequencies into three levels: low, intermediate and high. The assessment of several semen samples, with or without a genetic background, for abnormal sperm morphology, based on the percentage of normal spermatozoa, a teratozoospermia index, and the detailed profile of abnormalities categorized according to the three levels proposed, has highlighted the value of detailed phenotyping for diagnosis and research purposes. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The thresholds proposed for the various categories of sperm abnormality should be considered relative rather than absolute, owing to the known sampling error related to the limited number of spermatozoa assessed per sample, or when studying the general population or populations from regions other than Western Europe. The standardized assessment of abnormal sperm morphology requires time and experience. We therefore suggest that this assessment is carried out during a first andrological check-up or for epidemiological or research studies, rather than in the routine management of infertile couples for assisted reproductive technologies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The study design used for the fertile group of men was similar to that previously used for the WHO reference values, providing a rationale for considering the 95th percentile in fertile men as the level below which abnormalities may be considered to occur at a frequency representing random background variations of a normal spermiogenesis process. The crude frequencies obtained, and the three levels of abnormality frequency proposed for each standardized category of sperm defect, provide baseline data useful for diagnosis and a starting point for future studies aiming to identify associations with genetic or environmental factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

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