Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France
Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

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Cordelle C.,hopitaux universitaires Paris Center site Cochin | Coat B.,hopitaux universitaires Paris Center site Cochin | Kramer L.,hopitaux universitaires Paris Center site Cochin | Abbas N.,hopitaux universitaires Paris Center site Cochin | And 2 more authors.
Pharmacien Hospitalier et Clinicien | Year: 2016

Introduction: To avoid rilpivirine's under-dosing, intake during a meal and warning about drug-interaction with antacids and antisecretories must be recommended to patients. Two audits were conducted a year apart to assess patient knowledge about these advices, and thus to evaluate the pharmaceutical and medical practices in our hospital pharmacy. Materials and methods: A prospective method for assessing professional practices, a clinical audit, was retained. The evaluation grid to patients was a questionnaire. An information leaflet on intaking and interactions was given to them. A new questionnaire was proposed a year later, assessing the impact of the leaflet dispensation. Results: There was no significant improvement in the knowledge of intaking rilpivirine with food (92% versus 89%) and the interaction with the gastric pH modifiers (50% versus 54%). The information document has not been kept by all patients and only 33% of patients who responded to both questionnaires reported having received it. Discussion/Conclusion: Information leaflet given to each new rilpivirine's dispensation is insufficient given to each first dispensation of rilpivirine is insufficient; it is now proposed more regularly. The information reinforced by an oriented pharmaceutical meeting remains essential. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Joubrel C.,Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Center Site Cochin | Joubrel C.,Center National Of Reference Des Streptocoques | Joubrel C.,University of Paris Descartes | Joubrel C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 26 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of invasive infections among newborns in industrialized countries, with two described syndromes: early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD). Since the introduction in many countries of intrapartum antibioprophylaxis (IAP), the incidence of EOD has dramatically decreased, whereas that of LOD remains unchanged. We describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of 438 GBS neonatal invasive infections notified to the French National Reference Centre for Streptococci in France from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were retrieved from hospitalization reports or questionnaires. Capsular type, assignment to the hypervirulent clonal complex (CC)17 and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined. One hundred and seventy-four (39.7%) and 264 (60.3%) isolates were responsible for EOD, including death in utero, and LOD, respectively. EOD was associated with bacteraemia (n = 103, 61%) and LOD with meningitis (n = 145, 55%). EOD was mainly due to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) III isolates (n = 99, 57%) and CPS Ia isolates (n = 40, 23%), and CPS III isolates were responsible for 80% (n = 211) of LOD cases. CC17 accounted for 80% (n = 121) of CPS III isolates responsible for meningitis (n = 151; total cases of meningitis, 188). Bad outcome risk factors were low gestational age and low birthweight. LOD represents almost 60% of cases of neonatal GBS disease in France and other countries in which IAP has been implemented. This observation reinforces the need to develop new prevention strategies targeting CC17, which is predominant in GBS neonatal infections. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | University of Paris Descartes and hopitaux universitaires Paris Center Site Cochin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983) | Year: 2014

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive encapsulated bacterium, found in the digestive and vaginal tracts of 20-30% healthy individuals. It is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections (septicaemia and meningitis). Two GBS-associated syndromes have been recognized in neonates, the early-onset disease (EOD) and the late-onset disease (LOD), which occur in the first week of life (age 0-6 days) and after (age 7 days-3 months), respectively. Since the establishment of early antibiotic prophylaxis there has been a decrease in the incidence of EOD. However, LOD incidence remains stable. Epidemiological studies revealed a strong association between LOD and a single capsular serotype III ST-17 clone. This ST-17 clone, referred to as the hypervirulent clone, possesses specific virulence factors that could account for its increased virulence and neonatal tropism. Conjugate vaccines directed against several capsular serotypes are being developed to prevent invasive disease. However, hypervirulent strains having made a switch to a capsular serotype not covered by such vaccines are emerging, reinforcing the need to identify new candidate vaccines.


PubMed | Institute Pasteur Paris, Service de Bacteriologie, University of Paris Descartes and Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Center Site Cochin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of invasive infections among newborns in industrialized countries, with two described syndromes: early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD). Since the introduction in many countries of intrapartum antibioprophylaxis (IAP), the incidence of EOD has dramatically decreased, whereas that of LOD remains unchanged. We describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of 438 GBS neonatal invasive infections notified to the French National Reference Centre for Streptococci in France from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were retrieved from hospitalization reports or questionnaires. Capsular type, assignment to the hypervirulent clonal complex (CC)17 and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined. One hundred and seventy-four (39.7%) and 264 (60.3%) isolates were responsible for EOD, including death in utero, and LOD, respectively. EOD was associated with bacteraemia (n = 103, 61%) and LOD with meningitis (n = 145, 55%). EOD was mainly due to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) III isolates (n = 99, 57%) and CPS Ia isolates (n = 40, 23%), and CPS III isolates were responsible for 80% (n = 211) of LOD cases. CC17 accounted for 80% (n = 121) of CPS III isolates responsible for meningitis (n = 151; total cases of meningitis, 188). Bad outcome risk factors were low gestational age and low birthweight. LOD represents almost 60% of cases of neonatal GBS disease in France and other countries in which IAP has been implemented. This observation reinforces the need to develop new prevention strategies targeting CC17, which is predominant in GBS neonatal infections.


PubMed | Institute Pasteur Paris and Hopitaux Universitaires Paris Center Site Cochin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and an emerging pathogen in the elderly. Our objectives were to describe the evolution of GBS resistance to antibiotics in France and to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant isolates. A total of 8,757 unrelated GBS isolates were collected and tested for antibiotic susceptibility from 2007 to 2014 according to EUCAST recommendations. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and vancomycin. Resistance to macrolides decreased from 47.0% to 30.0%, whereas high-level resistance to aminoglycosides, especially amikacin, increased from 6.4% to 8.8% and 24 isolates (0.3%) were highly resistant to gentamicin. FQ resistance gradually increased from 0.2% in 2007 (n = 1) to 1.5% in 2014 (n = 18, P < 0.01). Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) showed that GBS isolates of sequence type 19 (ST-19) CPS type V were largely overrepresented in FQ-resistant isolates (n = 30, 45.5%). All 30 strains displayed the same QRDR mutations and were often associated with cross-resistance to macrolides (93.3%) and gentamicin (30%). In conclusion, we report the rise of FQ- and aminoglycoside-resistant GBS in France over an 8-year study period, an evolution likely linked to the clonal expansion of ST-19 CPS V-resistant isolates. This study emphasizes the need for a continuous surveillance of GBS epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility.

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