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University of Strasbourg, Niversite De Haute Alsace and Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Date: 2013-09-11

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Laugel-Haushalter V.,University of Strasbourg | Langer A.,University of Strasbourg | Marrie J.,University of Strasbourg | Fraulob V.,University of Strasbourg | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2012

Orodental anomalies are one aspect of rare diseases and are increasingly identified as diagnostic and predictive traits. To understand the rationale behind gene expression during tooth or other ectodermal derivative development and the disruption of odontogenesis or hair and salivary gland formation in human syndromes we analyzed the expression patterns of a set of genes (Irf6, Nfkbia, Ercc3, Evc2, Map2k1) involved in human ectodermal dysplasias in mouse by in situ hybridization. The expression patterns of Nfkbia, Ercc3 and Evc2 during odontogenesis had never been reported previously. All genes were indeed transcribed in different tissues/organs of ectodermal origin. However, for Nfkbia, Ercc3, Evc2, and Map2k1, signals were also present in the ectomesenchymal components of the tooth germs. These expression patterns were consistent in timing and localization with the known dental anomalies (tooth agenesis, microdontia, conical shape, enamel hypoplasia) encountered in syndromes resulting from mutations in those genes. They could also explain the similar orodental anomalies encountered in some of the corresponding mutant mouse models. Translational approaches in development and medicine are relevant to gain understanding of the molecular events underlying clinical manifestations. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Cadranel J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mauguen A.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Faller M.,University of Strasbourg | Zalcman G.,Caen University Hospital Center | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Epidermal growth factor and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten ras sarcoma (KRAS) mutation status, although associated with EGFR- tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy, has not been used in clinical practice until recently. The prospective Evaluation of the EGFR Mutation status for the administration of EGFR-TKIs in non small cell lung Carcinoma (ERMETIC) study aimed to implement these biomarkers in France. Methods: Between March 2007 and April 2008, EGFR and KRAS were studied by sequencing DNA tumor specimens from 522 consecutive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKI, mostly in second- or third-line settings. Cox models were used to investigate the impact of patient characteristics and mutations on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Added value from mutation status was evaluated using likelihood ratio (LR) tests. Classification and regression tree analysis aimed to identify homogeneous groups in terms of survival. Results: Among the 522 patients, 87% were white, 32% were women, and 18% were never-smokers, with 65% presenting with adenocarcinoma. Biological data were available for 307 patients, showing 44 EGFR mutations (14%) and 42 KRAS (14%) mutations. Median PFS was 2.4 months (interquartile range, 1.4-4.6) and median OS 5.6 months (interquartile range, 2.2-14.0). Factors independently associated with PFS were performance status 1 or 2 to 3 (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.9; and HR = 2.3, CI 1.7-3.1, respectively; p < 0.001); former or current smoker status (HR = 1.8, CI 1.4-2.4 and 2.0,CI 1.4-2.8, respectively; p < 0.001); nonadenocarcinoma histology (squamous cell: HR = 0.9 CI 0.7-1.2]; others: HR = 1.6, 1.3-2.1; p < 0.001); at least two metastatic sites (HR = 1.3, CI 1.1-1.6 and 1.6, CI 1.3-2.1, respectively; p < 0.001); prior taxane-based chemotherapy (HR = 1.3, CI 1.0-1.3, p = 0.01); non-white (HR = 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9, p = 0.009). Similar results were found for OS. In addition, EGFR and KRAS mutations were significantly associated with PFS (HR = 0.5, CI 0.3-0.7 and HR = 1.2, CI 0.8-1.8, respectively, versus no mutation; LR p = 0.001). In the OS model, adjusted HR was 0.7 (0.4-1.0) for EGFR mutation and 1.7 (1.1-2.4) for KRAS (LR p = 0.004). Classification and regression tree analysis revealed EGFR mutation to be the primary factor for identifying homogeneous patient subgroups in terms of PFS. Conclusions: EGFR and KRAS status independently impacts outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKI. However, EGFR status impacts both PFS and OS whereas KRAS only impacts OS. These findings support the nationwide use of EGFR status for patient selection before EGFR-TKI therapy. The role of KRAS mutations remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source


Wolff V.,Unite Neuro Vasculaire | Wolff V.,CNRS Computer Science and Engineering Laboratory | Wolff V.,University of Strasbourg | Armspach J.-P.,CNRS Computer Science and Engineering Laboratory | And 8 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Leading aetiologies of ischaemic stroke in young adults are cervico-cerebral arterial dissections and cardio-embolism, but the causes remain undetermined in a considerable proportion of cases. In a few reports, intracranial arterial stenosis has been suggested to be a potential cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics and risk factors of intracranial arterial stenosis in a prospective series of young ischaemic stroke patients. Methods: The study was based on a prospective consecutive hospital-based series of 159 patients aged 18-45 years who were admitted to our unit for an acute ischaemic stroke from October 2005 to December 2010. A structured questionnaire was used in order to assess common vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs, migraine, and, in women, oral contraceptive use. A systematic screening was performed, including the following: brain magnetic resonance imaging or, if not feasible, brain computed tomography scan, carotid and vertebral Duplex scanning and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance cerebral angiography or cerebral computed tomography angiography. Long-duration electrocardiography, trans-thoracic and trans-oesophageal echocardiography were performed and laboratory blood investigations were extensive. Urine samples were screened for cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamine and methylene-dioxy- methamphetamine. When this initial work-up was inconclusive, trans-femoral intra-arterial selective digital subtraction angiography with reconstructed 3D images was performed. Results: In this series, 49 patients (31%) had intracranial arterial stenosis. Other defined causes were found in 91 patients (57%), including cardio-embolism in 32 (20%), cervical dissection in 23 (14%), extracranial atherosclerosis in 7 (4%), haematological disorders in 7 (4%), small vessel disease in 1, and isolated patent foramen ovale in 21 (13%); in 19 patients (12%), ischaemic stroke was related to an undetermined aetiology. Comparing risk factors between patients with intracranial arterial stenosis and those with other definite causes showed that there were only two significant differences: a lower age and a higher frequency of vasoactive substances (especially cannabis) in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. All intracranial arterial stenosis in patients who used vasoactive substances were located in several intracranial vessels. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial stenosis may be an important mechanism of stroke in young patients and it should be systematically investigated using vascular imaging. Strong questioning about illicit drug consumption (including cannabis) or vasoactive medication use should also be performed. It should be emphasized for health prevention in young adults that cannabis use might be associated with critical consequences such as stroke. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Laugel-Haushalter V.,University of Strasbourg | Paschaki M.,University of Strasbourg | Thibault-Carpentier C.,University of Strasbourg | Dembele D.,University of Strasbourg | And 3 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results: 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion: These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in transgenic animal models and related human diseases leading to dental anomalies. © 2013 Laugel-Haushalter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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