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De La Dure-Molla M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | De La Dure-Molla M.,Rothschild | Quentric M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Quentric M.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 12 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2014

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects. Commonly described as an isolated trait, it may be observed concomitantly with other orodental and/or systemic features such as nephrocalcinosis in Enamel Renal Syndrome (ERS, MIM#204690), or gingival hyperplasia in Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Gingival Fibromatosis Syndrome (AIGFS, MIM#614253). Patients affected by ERS/AIGFS present a distinctive orodental phenotype consisting of generalized hypoplastic AI affecting both the primary and permanent dentition, delayed tooth eruption, pulp stones, hyperplastic dental follicles, and gingival hyperplasia with variable severity and calcified nodules. Renal exam reveals a nephrocalcinosis which is asymptomatic in children affected by ERS. FAM20A recessive mutations are responsible for both syndromes. We suggest that AIGFS and ERS are in fact descriptions of the same syndrome, but that the kidney phenotype has not always been investigated fully in AIGFS. The aim of this review is to highlight the distinctive and specific orodental features of patients with recessive mutations in FAM20A. We propose ERS to be the preferred term for all the phenotypes arising from recessive FAM20A mutations. A differential diagnosis has to be made with other forms of AI, isolated or syndromic, where only a subset of the clinical signs may be shared. When ERS is suspected, the patient should be assessed by a dentist, nephrologist and clinical geneticist. Confirmed cases require long-term follow-up. Management of the orodental aspects can be extremely challenging and requires the input of multi-disciplinary specialized dental team, especially when there are multiple unerupted teeth. © 2014 de la Dure-Molla et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cadranel J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mauguen A.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Faller M.,University of Strasbourg | Zalcman G.,Caen University Hospital Center | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Epidermal growth factor and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten ras sarcoma (KRAS) mutation status, although associated with EGFR- tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy, has not been used in clinical practice until recently. The prospective Evaluation of the EGFR Mutation status for the administration of EGFR-TKIs in non small cell lung Carcinoma (ERMETIC) study aimed to implement these biomarkers in France. Methods: Between March 2007 and April 2008, EGFR and KRAS were studied by sequencing DNA tumor specimens from 522 consecutive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKI, mostly in second- or third-line settings. Cox models were used to investigate the impact of patient characteristics and mutations on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Added value from mutation status was evaluated using likelihood ratio (LR) tests. Classification and regression tree analysis aimed to identify homogeneous groups in terms of survival. Results: Among the 522 patients, 87% were white, 32% were women, and 18% were never-smokers, with 65% presenting with adenocarcinoma. Biological data were available for 307 patients, showing 44 EGFR mutations (14%) and 42 KRAS (14%) mutations. Median PFS was 2.4 months (interquartile range, 1.4-4.6) and median OS 5.6 months (interquartile range, 2.2-14.0). Factors independently associated with PFS were performance status 1 or 2 to 3 (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.9; and HR = 2.3, CI 1.7-3.1, respectively; p < 0.001); former or current smoker status (HR = 1.8, CI 1.4-2.4 and 2.0,CI 1.4-2.8, respectively; p < 0.001); nonadenocarcinoma histology (squamous cell: HR = 0.9 CI 0.7-1.2]; others: HR = 1.6, 1.3-2.1; p < 0.001); at least two metastatic sites (HR = 1.3, CI 1.1-1.6 and 1.6, CI 1.3-2.1, respectively; p < 0.001); prior taxane-based chemotherapy (HR = 1.3, CI 1.0-1.3, p = 0.01); non-white (HR = 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9, p = 0.009). Similar results were found for OS. In addition, EGFR and KRAS mutations were significantly associated with PFS (HR = 0.5, CI 0.3-0.7 and HR = 1.2, CI 0.8-1.8, respectively, versus no mutation; LR p = 0.001). In the OS model, adjusted HR was 0.7 (0.4-1.0) for EGFR mutation and 1.7 (1.1-2.4) for KRAS (LR p = 0.004). Classification and regression tree analysis revealed EGFR mutation to be the primary factor for identifying homogeneous patient subgroups in terms of PFS. Conclusions: EGFR and KRAS status independently impacts outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKI. However, EGFR status impacts both PFS and OS whereas KRAS only impacts OS. These findings support the nationwide use of EGFR status for patient selection before EGFR-TKI therapy. The role of KRAS mutations remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.


PubMed | Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg, Nancy University Hospital Center, University of Strasbourg, Pole de Medecine et de Chirurgie Bucco dentaire and 19 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical genetics | Year: 2016

Orodental diseases include several clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that can present in isolation or as part of a genetic syndrome. Due to the vast number of genes implicated in these disorders, establishing a molecular diagnosis can be challenging. We aimed to develop a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to diagnose mutations and potentially identify novel genes mutated in this group of disorders.We designed an NGS gene panel that targets 585 known and candidate genes in orodental disease. We screened a cohort of 101 unrelated patients without a molecular diagnosis referred to the Reference Centre for Oro-Dental Manifestations of Rare Diseases, Strasbourg, France, for a variety of orodental disorders including isolated and syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), isolated and syndromic selective tooth agenesis (STHAG), isolated and syndromic dentinogenesis imperfecta, isolated dentin dysplasia, otodental dysplasia and primary failure of tooth eruption.We discovered 21 novel pathogenic variants and identified the causative mutation in 39 unrelated patients in known genes (overall diagnostic rate: 39%). Among the largest subcohorts of patients with isolated AI (50 unrelated patients) and isolated STHAG (21 unrelated patients), we had a definitive diagnosis in 14 (27%) and 15 cases (71%), respectively. Surprisingly, COL17A1 mutations accounted for the majority of autosomal-dominant AI cases.We have developed a novel targeted NGS assay for the efficient molecular diagnosis of a wide variety of orodental diseases. Furthermore, our panel will contribute to better understanding the contribution of these genes to orodental disease.NCT01746121 and NCT02397824.


Wolff V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Lauer V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Rouyer O.,EA 3072 | Sellal F.,Service de Neurologie | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background And Purpose- Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cannabis use and ischemic stroke in a young adult population. Methods- Forty-eight consecutive young patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke participated in the study. First-line screening was performed, including blood tests, cardiovascular investigations, and urine analysis for cannabinoids. If no etiology was found, 3D rotational angiography and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were performed. A control was planned through neurovascular imaging within 3 to 6 months. Results- In this series, there was multifocal intracranial stenosis associated with cannabis use in 21% (n=10). Conclusions- Multifocal angiopathy associated with cannabis consumption could be an important cause of ischemic stroke in young people. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.


Wolff V.,Unite Neuro Vasculaire | Wolff V.,CNRS Computer Science and Engineering Laboratory | Wolff V.,University of Strasbourg | Armspach J.-P.,CNRS Computer Science and Engineering Laboratory | And 8 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Leading aetiologies of ischaemic stroke in young adults are cervico-cerebral arterial dissections and cardio-embolism, but the causes remain undetermined in a considerable proportion of cases. In a few reports, intracranial arterial stenosis has been suggested to be a potential cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics and risk factors of intracranial arterial stenosis in a prospective series of young ischaemic stroke patients. Methods: The study was based on a prospective consecutive hospital-based series of 159 patients aged 18-45 years who were admitted to our unit for an acute ischaemic stroke from October 2005 to December 2010. A structured questionnaire was used in order to assess common vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs, migraine, and, in women, oral contraceptive use. A systematic screening was performed, including the following: brain magnetic resonance imaging or, if not feasible, brain computed tomography scan, carotid and vertebral Duplex scanning and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance cerebral angiography or cerebral computed tomography angiography. Long-duration electrocardiography, trans-thoracic and trans-oesophageal echocardiography were performed and laboratory blood investigations were extensive. Urine samples were screened for cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamine and methylene-dioxy- methamphetamine. When this initial work-up was inconclusive, trans-femoral intra-arterial selective digital subtraction angiography with reconstructed 3D images was performed. Results: In this series, 49 patients (31%) had intracranial arterial stenosis. Other defined causes were found in 91 patients (57%), including cardio-embolism in 32 (20%), cervical dissection in 23 (14%), extracranial atherosclerosis in 7 (4%), haematological disorders in 7 (4%), small vessel disease in 1, and isolated patent foramen ovale in 21 (13%); in 19 patients (12%), ischaemic stroke was related to an undetermined aetiology. Comparing risk factors between patients with intracranial arterial stenosis and those with other definite causes showed that there were only two significant differences: a lower age and a higher frequency of vasoactive substances (especially cannabis) in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. All intracranial arterial stenosis in patients who used vasoactive substances were located in several intracranial vessels. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial stenosis may be an important mechanism of stroke in young patients and it should be systematically investigated using vascular imaging. Strong questioning about illicit drug consumption (including cannabis) or vasoactive medication use should also be performed. It should be emphasized for health prevention in young adults that cannabis use might be associated with critical consequences such as stroke. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Laugel-Haushalter V.,University of Strasbourg | Paschaki M.,University of Strasbourg | Thibault-Carpentier C.,University of Strasbourg | Dembele D.,University of Strasbourg | And 3 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results: 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion: These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in transgenic animal models and related human diseases leading to dental anomalies. © 2013 Laugel-Haushalter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bouakaze C.,University of Strasbourg | Keyser C.,University of Strasbourg | Keyser C.,University Paul Sabatier | Gonzalez A.,University of Strasbourg | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The major goal of the present study was to investigate the potential use of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology, called iPLEX Gold (Sequenom), for the simultaneous analysis of 16 SNPs that have been previously validated as useful for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species and classification of MTBC isolates into distinct genetic lineages, known as principal genetic groups (PGGs) and SNP cluster groups (SCGs). In this context, we developed a 16-plex iPLEX assay based on an allele-specific-primer single-base-extension reaction using the iPLEX Gold kit (Sequenom), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis on the commercially available Sequenom MassARRAY platform. This assay was tested on a panel of 55 wellcharacterized MTBC strains that were also genotyped for the same loci using the previously reported SNaPshot assay, as well as 10 non-MTBC mycobacteria and 4 bacteria not belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. All MTBC samples were successfully analyzed with the iPLEX assay, which yielded clear allelic data for 99.9% of the SNPs (879 out of 880). No false-positive results were obtained with the negative controls. Compared to the SNaPshot assay, the newly developed 16-plex iPLEX assay produced fully concordant results that allowed reliable differentiation of MTBC species and recognition of lineages, thus demonstrating its potential value in diagnostic, epidemiological, and evolutionary applications. Compared to the SNaPshot approach, the implementation of the iPLEX technology could offer a higher throughput and could be a more flexible and cost-effective option for microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Mark M.,Institute Of Genetique Et Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Igbmc | Mark M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mark M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mark M.,University of Strasbourg | And 14 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2015

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, plays critical functions in spermatogenesis, a complex, highly organized and regulated process comprising three phases. During the proliferative phase, undifferentiated spermatogonia divide to maintain a stem cell population and expand a progenitor cell population, of which a fraction enters the differentiation pathway yielding primary spermatocytes. During the meiotic phase, primary spermatocytes undergo recombination, segregation and reduction by half of chromosomes to produce haploid round spermatids. During the morphogenetic, post-meiotic phase, spermatids differentiate and elongate to ultimately form spermatozoa. Studies performed during the past 20. years have significantly improved our knowledge on the location of the proteins transducing the atRA signal, on the target genes of atRA and on its mechanism of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
University of Strasbourg, Niversite De Haute Alsace and Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Date: 2013-09-11

The kit includes: a first implant (16) defining a window (26), and a second implant (18) including a second tubular body (42) designed to be positioned in the window (26). The second implant (18) includes a retaining member for retaining the second implant (18) relative to the first implant. The kit further includes a retaining ring (20) for retaining the second implant (18) attached on the first tubular body (22) in the window (26) and delimiting an insertion passage (60) for the second implant (18). The retaining ring (20) is elastically deformable in the window (26) to allow a reversible increase of at least 20%, advantageously at least 30%, of the outer contour of the insertion passage (60).


PubMed | Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus and University of Strasbourg
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Fundamental & clinical pharmacology | Year: 2015

Intraperitoneal insulin allows physiological portal insulin administration and first-pass hepatic insulin extraction, but the impact on liver metabolism and inflammation is unknown. Our objective was to compare the impact, on metabolic control and liver function, of the same dose of insulin administered either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously during continuous infusion in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (C), untreated diabetic (streptozotocin, 100mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated by continual subcutaneous Insuplant infusion (CSII) and continual intraperitoneal Insuplant() infusion (CPII) of 2UI/200 g/day (via an osmotic mini-pump for 1-4weeks). Insulin signalling pathways were analysed through hepatic expression of growth hormone receptor and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1. Metabolic control was determined by measurement of body weight, blood glucose and fructosamine. Liver function was assessed by measuring insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), with global inflammation assessed by levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin (2M) and lipid peroxidation in plasma. Liver inflammation was evaluated by quantification of hepatic macrophage infiltration and reactive oxygen species production. CPII induced a better improvement in metabolic control and liver function than CSII, producing a significant decrease in blood glucose and fructosamine, coupled with increased IGF-1 and hepatic glycogen storage. Moreover, liver oxidative stress and liver inflammation were reduced. Such observations indicate that the same insulin level in CPII improves glucose control and hepatic glucose metabolism and function, attenuating the hepatic inflammatory response to diabetes. These data demonstrate the importance of focusing on therapeutics to allow first-pass hepatic insulin extraction or prevent diabetic complications.

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