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La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Toscas J.I.,Instituto Oncologico Teknon | Linero D.,Instituto Oncologico Teknon | Rubio I.,Instituto Oncologico Teknon | Hidalgo A.,Servei de Radiodiagnstic | And 6 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology

Purpose: To assess the potential dosimetric advantages and drawbacks of photon beams (modulated or not), electron beams (EB), and protons as a boost for the tumor bed in deep-seated early-stage breast cancer. Material and methods: Planning CTs of 14 women with deep-seated tumors (i.e., ≥4 cm depth) were selected. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the area of architectural distortion surrounded by surgical clips. The planning treatment volume (PTV) was the CTV plus 1 cm margin. A dose of 16 Gy in 2 Gy fractions was prescribed. Organs at risk (OARs) were heart, lungs, breasts, and a 5-mm thick skin segment on the breast surface. Dose-volume metrics were defined to quantify the quality of concurrent treatment plans assessing target coverage and sparing of OAR. The following treatment techniques were assessed: photon beams with either static 3D-conformal, dynamic arc (DCA), static gantry intensity-modulated beams (IMRT), or RapidArc (RA); a single conformal EB; and intensity-modulated proton beams (IMPT). The goal for this planning effort was to cover 100% of the CTV with ≥95% of the prescribed dose and to minimize the volume inside the CTV receiving >107% of the dose. Results: All techniques but DCA and EB achieved the planning objective for the CTV with an inhomogeneity ranging from 2% to 11%. RA showed the best conformity, EB the worst. Contra-lateral breast and lung were spared by all techniques with mean doses <0.5 Gy (zero for protons). The ipsi-lateral lung received a mean dose <10% of that prescribed with photon beams and <2% with IMPT, increasing to 17% with EB. The heart, in left-sided breast tumors, received also the highest dose with EB. The skin was best protected with RA with a mean dose of 5.4 Gy and V15Gy = 2.4%. Conclusions: Boosting the tumor bed in early-stage breast cancer with optimized photon or proton beams may be preferred to EB especially for deep-seated targets. The marked OAR (i.e., ipsi-lateral breast, lung, heart, and skin surface) dose-sparing effect may allow for a potential long-term toxicity risk reduction and better cosmesis. DCA or RA may also be considered alternative treatment options for patients eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation trials. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Guittier M.-J.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Guittier M.-J.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Genve | Othenin-Girard V.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite

Occipito-posterior presentation represents 10 to 34% of cephalic presentations in early labor. Spontaneous rotation during labor to occipito-anterior mode occurs in most cases, but 5 to 8% of fetuses will persist in posterior position for the expulsive phase of delivery. Previous research has shown that this presentation carries an increased risk of unusually long labor, maternal and fetal exhaustion, instrument-assisted delivery, severe perineal injury, and cesarean section. The diagnosis of posterior variety is usually made quite late at the end of dilation. Several researchers have reported the benefits of determining presentation during labor by transabdominal ultrasonography. Some obstetrical techniques to correct these presentations at complete dilation have also been described. In the case of diagnosis of posterior variety, the usual attitude is expectant management. Postural techniques to promote physiological labor and delivery have been documented in the literature. De Gasquet has described a very precise technique to facilitate fetal rotation, but its effectiveness has never been assessed scientifically. A Cochrane review on the topic has shown that similar positions are well accepted by women and reduce back pain. On the other hand, the sample size of included studies appeared inadequate to assess their interest for use in childbirth, in general, and for adverse outcomes associated with posterior presentation varieties in particular. Attempts to correct the fetal malposition during the expansion phase would allow to reduce adverse outcomes during the expulsive phase of delivery. Further research is necessary to assess the efficacity of specific maternal positions during labor for the correction of fetal posterior presentation. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Cai L.,University of Lausanne | Cai L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Stauder M.C.,Mayo Medical School | Zhang Y.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4-60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2-8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6-242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log-rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ≤1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p < 0.0001), and RT dose >40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Ghadjar P.,University of Bern | Kaanders J.H.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Poortmans P.,Institute Verbeeten | Zaucha R.,Medical University of Gdansk | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective multicenter study was performed in 180 patients with MCC treated between February 1988 and September 2009. Patients who had had surgery alone were compared with patients who received surgery and postoperative RT or radical RT. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were assessed together with disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Results: Seventy-nine patients were male and 101 patients were female, and the median age was 73 years old (range, 38-93 years). The majority of patients had localized disease (n = 146), and the remaining patients had regional lymph node metastasis (n = 34). Forty-nine patients underwent surgery for the primary tumor without postoperative RT to the primary site; the other 131 patients received surgery for the primary tumor, followed by postoperative RT (n = 118) or a biopsy of the primary tumor followed by radical RT (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 0.2-16.5 years). Patients in the RT group had improved LRFS (93% vs. 64%; p < 0.001), RRFS (76% vs. 27%; p < 0.001), DMFS (70% vs. 42%; p = 0.01), DFS (59% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), and CSS (65% vs. 49%; p = 0.03) rates compared to patients who underwent surgery for the primary tumor alone; LRFS, RRFS, DMFS, and DFS rates remained significant with multivariable Cox regression analysis. However OS was not significantly improved by postoperative RT (56% vs. 46%; p = 0.2). Conclusions: After multivariable analysis, postoperative RT was associated with improved outcome and seems to be an important component in the multimodality treatment of MCC. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Caubet J.-C.,University of Geneva | Kaiser L.,University of Geneva | Lemaitre B.,University of Geneva | Fellay B.,Toyota Central R&D Labs. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Background: Delayed-onset urticarial or maculopapular rashes are frequently observed in children treated with β-lactams. Many are labeled "allergic" without reliable testing. Objective: Determine the etiology of these rashes by exploring both infectious and allergic causes. Methods: Children presenting to the emergency department with delayed-onset urticarial or maculopapular rashes were enrolled. Acute and convalescent sera were obtained for viral screening along with a throat swab. Subjects underwent intradermal and patch skin testing for β-lactams 2 months after presentation. Anti-β-lactam blood allergy tests were also obtained. All subjects underwent an oral challenge test (OCT) with the culprit antibiotic. Results: Eighty-eight children were enrolled between 2006 and 2008. There were 11 (12.5%) positive intradermal and no positive patch tests. There were 2 (2.3%) positive blood allergy tests. There were 6 (6.8%) subjects with a positive OCT, 2 were intradermal-negative, and 4 were intradermal-positive. No OCT reactions were more severe than the index event. Most subjects had at least 1 positive viral study, 54 (65.9%) in the OCT negative group. Conclusion: In this situation, β-lactam allergy is clearly overdiagnosed because the skin rash is only rarely reproducible (6.8%) by a subsequent challenge. Viral infections may be an important factor in many of these rashes. OCTs were positive in a minority of intradermal skin test-positive subjects. Patch testing and blood allergy testing provided no useful information. OCTs should be considered in all children who develop a delayed-onset urticarial or maculopapular rash during treatment with a β-lactam. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

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