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PubMed | Hopitaux universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix, Hannover Medical School, University of Leuven and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration | Year: 2016

Neurofilaments are leading neurochemical biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we investigated the effect of preanalytical factors on neurofilament concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a reverse round-robin with 15 centers across Europe/U.S.Samples from ALS and control patients (5/5 each center, n=150) were analyzed for phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) at two laboratories.CSF pNfH was increased (p<0.05) in ALS in 10 out of 15 centers and NfL in 5 out of 12 centers. The coefficient of variation (CV%) of pNfH measurements between laboratories was 18.719.1%. We calculated a diagnostic cut-off of >568.5pg/mL for pNfH (sensitivity 78.7%, specificity 93.3%) and >1,431pg/mL for NfL (sensitivity 79.0%, specificity 86.4%).Values in ALS patients are already comparable between most centers, supporting eventual implementation into clinical routine. However, continuous quality control programs will be necessary for inclusion in the diagnostic work-up.


Gautheret-Dejean A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gautheret-Dejean A.,Hopitaux Universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix | Gautheret-Dejean A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Bocobza J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2015

Major differences exist between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in terms of epidemiology, pathogenicity, sensitivity to antiretrovirals. Determining the type of HIV infecting a patient is essential for management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of simple/rapid tests to differentiate between HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections. We analyzed 116 samples from patients infected with HIV-1 (n=61), HIV-2 (n=47), or HIV-1+HIV-2 (n=8) at the chronic stage of infection. Each sample was tested with SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2 (WB), Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2, ImmunoComb HIV1&2 BiSpot. HIV-1, or HIV-2 single infection was identified with a sensitivity ranging from 90% to 100%. The ability to detect dual infection was less sensitive (12.5-100%). SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, and Genie III were unable to detect HIV-1 group O infection in one, one and two cases, respectively. The specificity of detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, or HIV-1+HIV-2 antibodies differed greatly (36-100%). ImmunoComb BiSpot had the highest sensitivity values (99-100% for HIV-1, 98% for HIV-2, and 75-87.5% for dual infection) and specificity values (94-100% for HIV-1, 100% for HIV-2, and 97-100% for dual infection). In conclusion, this study showed that no single rapid test had a perfect sensitivity/specificity ratio, particularly in the case of the double infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Campos A.B.,Molecular Oncology and Viral Pathology Group CI IPOP | Campos A.B.,University of Porto | Ribeiro J.,Molecular Oncology and Viral Pathology Group CI IPOP | Ribeiro J.,Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto | And 6 more authors.
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2016

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The significant clinical impact of HCMV infection and progression to HCMV disease among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients has been reduced by prophylactic, preemptive, and curative treatments using ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir. Resistance to (val)ganciclovir results from mutations localized in HCMV UL97 gene (encoding the pUL97 phosphotransferase), UL54 gene (encoding the pUL54 DNA polymerase), or both genes, whereas foscarnet and cidofovir resistance results from mutations localized within UL54 gene only. This review is focused on HCMV antiviral drug resistance, including the functions of target genes of antivirals, the mechanisms of antiviral resistance, the different mutations in pUL97 and pUL54 that have been identified in either clinical isolates or laboratory strains, and their impact on HCMV susceptibility to antiviral drugs. It emphasizes the importance of proving that observed genetic changes confer resistance so they can be distinguished from polymorphisms. Because of the emergence of HCMV resistance to currently available drugs, novel drugs are urgently needed for the therapeutic management of HCMV-resistant infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Compain F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Frangeul L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Drieux L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Drieux L.,Hopitaux Universitaires la Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix | And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of two IncR replicons encoding multidrug resistance determinants, including β-lactam (bla DHA-1, blaSHV-12), aminoglycoside (aphA1, strA, strB), and fluoroquinolone (qnrB4, aac6′-1b-cr) resistance genes. The plasmids have backbones that are similar to each other, including the replication and stability systems, and contain a wide variety of transposable elements carrying known antibiotic resistance genes. This study confirms the increasing clinical importance of IncR replicons as resistance gene carriers. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Hopitaux Universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix, Bordeaux University Hospital Center, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and University Pierre and Marie Curie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuromuscular diseases | Year: 2016

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is mainly characterized by ptosis and dysphagia. The genetic cause is a short expansion of a (GCN)10 repeat encoding for polyalanine in the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) gene to (GCN)12-17 repeats. The (GCN)11/Ala11 allele has so far been described to be either a polymorphism or a recessive allele with no effect on the phenotype in the heterozygous state. Here we report the clinical and histopathological phenotype of a patient carrying a single (GCN)11/Ala11 heterozygous allele and presenting an atypical form of OPMD with dysphagia and late and mild oculomotor symptoms. Intranuclear inclusions were observed in his muscle biopsy. This suggests a dominant mode of expression of the (GCN)11/Ala11 allele associated with a partial penetrance of OPMD.


PubMed | Hopitaux Universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix, Paris-Sorbonne University, Institute Du Cerveau Et Of La Moelle Epiniere Icm, French National Center for Scientific Research and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science translational medicine | Year: 2016

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of systemically administered drugs to the brain. Methods to circumvent the BBB have been developed, but none are used in standard clinical practice. The lack of adoption of existing methods is due to procedural invasiveness, serious adverse effects, and the complications associated with performing such techniques coincident with repeated drug administration, which is customary in chemotherapeutic protocols. Pulsed ultrasound, a method for disrupting the BBB, was shown to effectively increase drug concentrations and to slow tumor growth in preclinical studies. We now report the interim results of an ultrasound dose-escalating phase 1/2a clinical trial using an implantable ultrasound device system, SonoCloud, before treatment with carboplatin in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). The BBB of each patient was disrupted monthly using pulsed ultrasound in combination with systemically injected microbubbles. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that the BBB was disrupted at acoustic pressure levels up to 1.1 megapascals without detectable adverse effects on radiologic (MRI) or clinical examination. Our preliminary findings indicate that repeated opening of the BBB using our pulsed ultrasound system, in combination with systemic microbubble injection, is safe and well tolerated in patients with recurrent GBM and has the potential to optimize chemotherapy delivery in the brain.


Houze S.,Center Hospitalier University Bichat Claude Bernard | Paris L.,Hopitaux Universitaires la Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires | Year: 2015

Summary Rapid diagnostic tests whose interest lies in their implementation without specific equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to malaria diagnosis with detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, mainly PfHRP2 and pLDH. If the detection of PfHRP2 makes a very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks, research pLDH or aldolase are lower for other species, imposing retain microscopic diagnosis reference. This methodology is now being applied to the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis as well. At the same time, the detection of specific antibody developed for Chagas disease and visceral leishmaniasis and recently schistosomiasis. These tests have sensitivities and specificities variables, the biologist must know before choosing the reagent that will implement in his laboratory.


Bidri M.,hopitaux universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix | Choay P.,16 bis
Phytotherapie | Year: 2016

Recently, pomegranate, a fruit consumed since thousands of years, has found an unprecedented upsurge of interest among both scientists and consumers. Pomegranate, in addition to its high nutritional value, is an important source of minerals, vitamins, and polyphenolic compounds consisting mainly of tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. The medicinal use of pomegranate is very old, but during the previous two decades, many studies have been conducted on this fruit, which have shown that polyphenols of pomegranate have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antibacterial properties. From these facts, pomegranate is proposed as an adjunct in the treatment of certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers particularly that of the prostate. In diabetic patients with coronary heart disease, polyphenols may improve irrigation of the myocardium and help to reduce atherosclerotic deposits in the carotid. Interestingly, polyphenols of pomegranate inhibit the proliferation of many tumour cell lines in vitro as well as in vivo (xenografts of tumour cell in animals). In humans, a few clinical trials have shown that polyphenols of pomegranate increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer, although other studies failed to evidence such a benefit. These contradictory data may probably be related to the use of pomegranate extracts containing different concentrations of polyphenols. As a consequence, additional randomized controlled trials on a large population with standardized pomegranate polyphenols extracts are needed to confirm the cardioprotective role of these compounds, as well as their antiproliferative effect particularly in prostate cancer. © 2016 Lavoisier


PubMed | hopitaux universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix, Hopitaux universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix and Rennes University Hospital Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983) | Year: 2016

Due to their extended indications, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are increasingly used in hospital setting. After injection, classical IVIg half-life reaches more than 3weeks. IVIg result from the pooling of many blood donations and contain all natural antibodies usually found in the general population. Administered antibodies are known to interfere with many diagnostic assays, particularly those used for infectious serology. It is not recommended to perform serological determination after IVIg infusion. It is recommended to keep a delay of at least 4months after IVIg infusion before doing any serological assay; failure to do so will result in misinterpretation of biological findings. Interpretation of any serological test after IVIg administration should be particularly cautious.


PubMed | Hopitaux Universitaires La Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix and French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2016

Malpositioning of the acetabular cup during total hip arthroplasty increases the risk of dislocation, edge-loading, squeaking, early wear, and loosening. We hypothesized that the use of three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tools to identify the planned cup position relative to the acetabular edge intraoperatively would increase the accuracy of cup orientation. The purpose of this study was to compare 3-D planning-assisted implantation and freehand insertion of the acetabular cup.This was a prospective randomized controlled study of two groups of twenty-eight patients each. In the first group, cup positioning was guided by 3-D views of the cup within the acetabulum obtained during 3-D preoperative planning. In the control group, the cup was placed freehand. All of the patients were operated on by the same surgeon, through a minimally invasive direct anterior approach with the patient in the supine position. Cup anteversion and abduction angles were measured on 3-D computed tomography (CT) reconstructions. The main evaluation criterion was the percentage of outliers according to the Lewinnek safe zone.Operative time did not differ between the two groups. The cup anteversion was more accurate in the 3-D planning group (mean difference from the planned angle [and standard deviation], -2.7 5.4) compared with the freehand-placement group (6.6 9.5). According to the Lewinnek safe zone, overall, the percentage of outliers was lower in the 3-D planning group (21%; six patients) than in the control group (46%; thirteen patients). According to the Callanan safe zone, the percentage of outliers was also lower in the 3-D planning group (25% versus 64%). Although cup abduction was also restored with greater accuracy in the 3-D planning group, on the basis of the Lewinnek safe zone, the percentage of abduction outliers was comparable between groups, with fewer high-abduction values, but more low-abduction values, in the 3-D planning group.Preoperative 3-D planning increased the accuracy of anteversion restoration and reduced the percentage of outliers without increasing the operative time. In this study, the same advantage could not be demonstrated for abduction.Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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