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Polkowski M.,Center of Oncology of Poland | Larghi A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Weynand B.,Catholic University of Louvain | Giovannini M.,Paoli Calmettes Institute | And 2 more authors.
Endoscopy | Year: 2012

This article is the second of a two-part publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided Trucut biopsy. The first part (the Clinical Guideline) focused on the results obtained with EUS-guided sampling, and the role of this technique in patient management, and made recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. The current Technical Guideline discusses issues related to learning, techniques, and complications of EUS-guided sampling, and to processing of specimens. Technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation, needle diameter, microcore isolation for histopathological examination, and adequate number of needle passes) are discussed and recommendations are made for various settings, including solid and cystic pancreatic lesions, submucosal tumors, and lymph nodes. The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes gastroenterologists, oncologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technical Guideline should be most useful to endoscopists who perform EUS-guided sampling. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

Plouin-Gaudon I.,Center Hospitalier Of Valence | Bossard D.,Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz | Ayari-Khalfallah S.,Hopital Femme Mere Enfant | Froehlich P.,Hopital Femme Mere Enfant
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and highresolution computed tomographic (CT) scan coregistration in predicting and adequately locating primary or recurrent cholesteatoma in children. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital. Patients: Ten patients aged 2 to 17 years (mean age, 8.5 years) with cholesteatoma of the middle ear, some of which were previously treated, were included for follow-up with systematic CT scanning and MRI between 2007 and 2008. Interventions: Computed tomographic scanning was performed on a Siemens Somaton 128 (0.5/0.2-mm slices reformatted in 0.5/0.3-mm images). Fine cuts were obtained parallel and perpendicular to the lateral semicircular canal in each ear (100x100-mm field of view). Magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken on a Siemens Avanto 1.5T unit, with a protocol adapted for young children. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired using a single-shot turbo spin-echo mode. To allow for diagnosis and localization of the cholesteatoma, CT and diffusion-weighted MRIs were fused for each case. Results: In 10 children, fusion technique allowed for correct diagnosis and precise localization (hypotympanum, epitympanum, mastoid recess, and attical space) as confirmed by subsequent standard surgery (positive predictive value, 100%). In 3 cases, the surgical approach was adequately determined from the fusion results. Lesion sizes on the CT-MRI fusion corresponded with perioperative findings. Conclusions: Recent developments in imaging techniques have made diffusion-weighted MRI more effective for detecting recurrent cholesteatoma. The major drawback of this technique, however, has been its poor anatomical and spatial discrimination. Fusion imaging using high-resolution CT and diffusion-weighted MRI appears to be a promising technique for both the diagnosis and precise localization of cholesteatomas. It provides useful information for surgical planning and, furthermore, is easy to use in pediatric cases. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Ortholan C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Romestaing P.,Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz | Chapet O.,University of Lyon | Gerard J.P.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: To investigate, in rectal cancer, the benefit of a neoadjuvant radiation dose escalation with endocavitary contact radiotherapy (CXRT) in addition to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). This article provides an update of the Lyon R96-02 Phase III trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients with T2 to T3 carcinoma of the lower rectum were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant EBRT 39 Gy in 13 fractions (43 patients) vs. the same EBRT with CXRT boost, 85 Gy in three fractions (45 patients). Median follow-up was 132 months. Results: The 10-year cumulated rate of permanent colostomy (CRPC) was 63% in the EBRT group vs. 29% in the EBRT+CXRT group (p < 0.001). The 10-year rate of local recurrence was 15% vs. 10% (p = 0.69); 10-year disease-free survival was 54% vs. 53% (p = 0.99); and 10-year overall survival was 56% vs. 55% (p = 0.85). Data of clinical response (CR) were available for 78 patients (36 in the EBRT group and 42 in the EBRT+CXRT group): 12 patients were in complete CR (1 patient vs. 11 patients), 53 patients had a CR ≥50% (24 patients vs. 29 patients), and 13 patients had a CR <50% (11 patients vs. 2 patients) (p < 0.001). Of the 65 patients with CR ≥50%, 9 had an organ preservation procedure (meaning no rectal resection) taking advantage of major CR. The 10-year CRPC was 17% for patients with complete CR, 42% for patients with CR ≥50%, and 77% for patients with CR <50% (p = 0.014). Conclusion: In cancer of the lower rectum, CXRT increases the complete CR, turning in a significantly higher rate of long-term permanent sphincter and organ preservation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Plouin-Gaudon I.,Center Hospitalier Of Valence | Bossard D.,Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz | Fuchsmann C.,University of Lyon | Ayari-Khalfallah S.,University of Lyon | Froehlich P.,University of Lyon
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2010

Objective: To compare the efficiency of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (MRI) vs. high resolution CT in predicting recurrent or residual cholesteatoma in children who underwent prior middle ear surgery. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital. Patients: Seventeen patients (4 with 2 recurrences) aged 5-17 years (mean 11.4) previously surgically treated for a cholesteatoma of the middle ear, were included for follow-up with systematic CT scan and MRI, between 2005 and 2007. Methodology: CT scan was performed on a Siemens Somaton 64 (0.5/0.2 mm slices reformatted in 0.5/0.3 mm images), parallel and perpendicular to the lateral semi-circular canal for each ear (100 mm × 100 mm FOV). MRI was undertaken on a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T unit, with an adapted protocol for young children. Diagnosis of recurrent cholesteatoma was based on the evidence of a hyperintense image at B1000 on diffusion-weighted images. Results of CT scan and MRI were compared with operative diagnosis. Results: Nine patients had a positive MRI, among which 8 had cholesteatoma confirmed during revision surgery. In the 12 negative MRI cases, 5 were positive on revision surgery. None of these lesions was over 3 mm. Two of them were diagnosed on the CT scan. CT scan alone had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 58%. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI is associated with a high positive predictive value for the detection of recurrent cholesteatoma. CT scan remains the first choice imaging technique. In case of doubtful CT scan, diffusion-weighted MRI could confirm a recurrence or, when negative, avoid second-look surgery. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder defined by the absence of propagated contractions (aperistalsis) in the body of the esophagus and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Thanks to high resolution manometry and study of the esophageal pressure topography, three subtypes, according to the classification of Chicago, have a direct interest in the choice of treatment to use: type I of achalasia presents the same result with pneumatic dilatation (81%) and surgery (85%); type II of achalasia presents the best result with pneumatic dilatation (100%); type III of achalasia called "spastic", which is the more resistant, have the best result with Heller-Dor myotomy (86%). More recently appeared the peroral endoscopic myotomy, which remains to study in France, but with the preliminary results, this technic could become the treatment of choice for achalasia, particularly in the type III which is the most resistant. © Springer-Verlag 2013.

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