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Demoncheaux J.-P.,Direction Interarmees du Service de Sante | Michel R.,Center Depidemiologie Et Of Sante Publique Des Armees | Mazenot C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Duflos G.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de lAlimentation | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85·9%), headache (83·1%), rapid/weak pulse (59·1%) and diarrhoea (47·9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36·3, 95% confidence interval 6·3- 210·0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Torrentino-Madamet M.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Torrentino-Madamet M.,Aix - Marseille University | Torrentino-Madamet M.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | And 18 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, manifested as delayed parasite clearance following the treatment, has developed in Southeast Asia. The spread of resistance to artemisinin from Asia to Africa may be catastrophic for malaria control and elimination worldwide. Recently, mutations in the propeller domain of the Kelch 13 (k13) gene (PF3D71343700) were associated with in vitro resistance to artemisinin and with delayed clearance after artemisinin treatment in southern Asia. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic variability of k13 and to evaluate the molecular resistance to artemisinin for the first time in Senegal. Methods: Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from 138 malaria patients in Dakar and its districts during the rainy season of October 2012 to January 2013 at the Hôpital Principal de Dakar. The k13 gene was amplified using nested PCR and sequenced. Results: A very limited variability within the k13 gene in Senegalese P. falciparum isolates was identified. No polymorphism was detected in the six k13-propeller blades. Only two mutations, T149S (6.3%) and K189T (42.2%), and one (N) or two (NN) asparagine insertion at the codon 142 (4.7 and 6.3%, respectively) were detected in the Plasmodium/Apicomplexa-specific domain. None of the polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia was detected in the 138 P. falciparum from Dakar. Discussion: The present data do not suggest widespread artemisinin resistance in Dakar in 2012-2013. Notably, the C580Y, R539T or Y493H substitutions that were associated with in vitro resistance or delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia were not observed in Dakar, nor were any of the polymorphisms observed in parasites from Southeast Asia, nor the M476I mutation that was selected in vitro with artemisinin pressure in a African parasite line. © 2014 Torrentino-Madamet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wurtz N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Pascual A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Diawara S.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | And 13 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: As a result of the widespread resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (including artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Intermittent preventive treatments with anti-malarial drugs based on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are also given to children or pregnant women once per month during the transmission season. Since 2006, there have been very few reports on the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To estimate the prevalence of resistance to several anti-malarial drugs since the introduction of the widespread use of ACT, the presence of molecular markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was assessed in local isolates at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods. The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in genes associated with anti-malarial drug resistance, i.e., Pfcrt, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfmdr1, and the copy number of Pfmdr1 were evaluated for a panel of 174 isolates collected from patients recruited at the military hospital of Dakar from 14 October 2009 to 19 January 2010. Results: The Pfcrt 76T mutation was identified in 37.2% of the samples. The Pfmdr1 86Y and 184F mutations were found in 16.6% and 67.6% of the tested samples, respectively. Twenty-eight of the 29 isolates with the 86Y mutation were also mutated at codon 184. Only one isolate (0.6%) had two copies of Pfmdr1. The Pfdhfr 108N/T, 51I and 59R mutations were identified in 82.4%, 83.5% and 74.1% of the samples, respectively. The double mutant (108N and 51I) was detected in 83.5% of the isolates, and the triple mutant (108N, 51I and 59R) was detected in 75.3%. The Pfdhps 437G, 436F/A and 613S mutations were found in 40.2%, 35.1% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. There was no double mutant (437G and 540E) or no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E). The prevalence of the quadruple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G) was 36.5%. Conclusions: Since 2004, the prevalence of chloroquine resistance had decreased. The prevalence of isolates with high-level pyrimethamine resistance is 83.5%. The prevalence of isolates resistant to sulphadoxine is 40.2%. However, no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E), which is associated with a high level of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, has been identified to date. The resistance to amodiaquine remains moderate. © 2012 Wurtz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Diawara S.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Sow K.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Baret E.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 10 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine resistance, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (which includes artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Since then, there have been very few reports on the ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To examine whether parasite susceptibility has been affected by the widespread use of ACT, the ex vivo susceptibility of local isolates was assessed at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods. The ex vivo susceptibility of 93 P. falciparum isolates from Dakar was successfully determined using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA for the following drugs: chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ), lumefantrine (LMF), dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and doxycycline (DOX). Results: After transformation of the isolate IC 50in ratio of IC50according to the susceptibility of the 3D7 reference strain (isolate IC50/3D7 IC50), the prevalence of the in vitro resistant isolates with reduced susceptibility was 50% for MQ, 22% for CQ, 12% for DOX, 6% for both QN and MDAQ and 1% for the drugs LMF and DHA. The highest significant positive correlations were shown between responses to CQ and MDAQ (r = 0.569; P < 0.0001), LMF and QN (r = 0.511; P < 0.0001), LMF and DHA (r = 0.428; P = 0.0001), LMF and MQ (r = 0.413; P = 0.0002), QN and DHA (r = 0.402; P = 0.0003) and QN and MQ (r = 0.421; P = 0.0001). Conclusions: The introduction of ACT in 2002 has not induced a decrease in P. falciparum susceptibility to the drugs DHA, MDAQ and LMF, which are common ACT components. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum isolates with reduced susceptibility has increased for both MQ and DOX. Taken together, these data suggest that intensive surveillance of the P. falciparum in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs in Senegal is required. © 2011 Fall et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wade K.A.,Hopital principal de Dakar | Sene B.E.J.,CHU Vaudois | Niang E.M.,Hopital principal de Dakar | Diallo A.,Hopital principal de Dakar | Diatta B.,Hopital principal de Dakar
Medecine et Sante Tropicales | Year: 2012

We report the results of a retrospective study in the medical intensive care unit of the Principal Military Teaching Hospital of Dakar. The objectives were to determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects of severe malaria and to evaluate the prognostic values of the failure of different organs. Eighty-seven patients were admitted for severe malaria. Their average age was 35 ± 18.53 with a sex-ratio of 1.71 for men. Mortality was 33.3% and concerned mainly young adults. Neurological failure was the most frequent (79.3%). Hemodynamic failure was the most relevant prognostic factor for mortality, followed by hypoglycemia, respiratory and renal failure. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) was reliable in predicting mortality. The mean SAPS II was 44.85, with an expected mortality of 32.6%.


Omar A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Camara M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Fall S.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ngom-Cisse S.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2014

Introduction. This report documents a rare case of Chryseobacterium indologenes urinary tract infection in Senegal. Chryseobacterium indologenes is an uncommon human pathogen reported in hospital outbreaks in Taiwan and there have been some sporadic cases reported in Europe and in the USA mainly from immune-suppressed patients. Case presentation. This case report describes a 42-year-old woman of Wolofa ethnicity who was hospitalized in our Department of Internal Medicine in a Senegalese university teaching hospital, with acute leukemia who died of severe sepsis 10 days following her hospitalization. A strain of Chryseobacterium indologenes isolated from her urine sample was resistant to several beta-lactams including ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256μg/mL), cefotaxime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 32μg/mL) and imipenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥32μg/mL), whereas it was susceptible to piperacillin (minimum inhibitory concentrations 16μg/mL), cefepime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 4μg/mL), ceftazidime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 4μg/mL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤0.25μg/mL) and all tested quinolones including nalidixic acid (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤2μg/mL). Conclusions: Chryseobacterium indologenes although uncommon, is an important pathogen causing infection in hospitalized patients. The management of this infection needs better identification, drug susceptibility testing and monitoring of immunosuppressed patients with long hospitalizations. © 2014 Omar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Anatomopathology Unit and Hopital Principal de Dakar
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016

Hepatic and/or splenic tuberculosis may simulate much pathology including malignancies, which can roam the diagnosis. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis. The treatment allows healing and a cleaning of radiological lesions.We report a case of a 48-old-black Senegalese woman, immunocompetent, hospitalized for febrile jaundice and poor general condition. Imaging and hepatic biopsy showed hepatosplenic tuberculosis with cholangitis, simulating secondary malignancies lesions. The outcome was favorable under treatment.In front of hepatic nodular lesions simulating malignancies in a tuberculosis endemic areas, achieving a liver biopsy helps rectify the diagnosis.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University and Hopital Principal de Dakar
Type: | Journal: Journal of microbiological methods | Year: 2016

In this paper, we evaluate a rapid and safe pretreatment procedure using glass beads for MALDI-TOF yeast identification in a routine clinical laboratory avoiding the use of formic acid. We created a new yeast database library using 1186 yeasts, including 11 references strains. The database was tested using 2131 clinical isolates allowing accurate species-level identification in 98.9% (2107/2131) of cases with a score over 1.9 and in 99% (2123/2131) of the strains at the genus level. The new protocol is a rapid, reliable and safe procedure for the accurate identification of pathogenic Candida strains and requires minimal handling.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University, Cheikh Anta Diop University and Hopital Principal de Dakar
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Our team in Europe has developed the routine clinical laboratory identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). To evaluate the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in tropical Africa in collaboration with local teams, we installed an apparatus in the Hpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal), performed routine identification of isolates, and confirmed or completed their identification in France. In the case of discordance or a lack of identification, molecular biology was performed. Overall, 153/191 (80.1%) and 174/191 (91.1%) isolates yielded an accurate and concordant identification for the species and genus, respectively, with the 2 different MALDI-TOF MSs in Dakar and Marseille. The 10 most common bacteria, representing 94.2% of all bacteria routinely identified in the laboratory in Dakar (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were accurately identified with the MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar. The most frequent misidentification in Dakar was at the species level for Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was inaccurately identified as Achromobacter denitrificans, and the bacteria absent from the database, such as Exiguobacterium aurientacum or Kytococcus schroeteri, could not be identified. A few difficulties were observed with MALDI-TOF MS for Bacillus sp. or oral streptococci. 16S rRNA sequencing identified a novel bacterium, Necropsobacter massiliensis. The robust identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar and Marseille demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a first-line tool in clinical microbiology laboratories in tropical countries.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University and Hopital Principal de Dakar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: New microbes and new infections | Year: 2014

We report the detection and molecular characterization of extended spectrum -lactamases in a series of 112 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Hpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal, including five CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii isolates, which are reported for the first time in this country.

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