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Demoncheaux J.-P.,Direction Interarmees du Service de Sante | Michel R.,Center Depidemiologie Et Of Sante Publique Des Armees | Mazenot C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Duflos G.,Agence nationale de securite sanitaire de lalimentation | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85·9%), headache (83·1%), rapid/weak pulse (59·1%) and diarrhoea (47·9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36·3, 95% confidence interval 6·3- 210·0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Wurtz N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Pascual A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Diawara S.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | And 13 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: As a result of the widespread resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (including artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Intermittent preventive treatments with anti-malarial drugs based on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are also given to children or pregnant women once per month during the transmission season. Since 2006, there have been very few reports on the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To estimate the prevalence of resistance to several anti-malarial drugs since the introduction of the widespread use of ACT, the presence of molecular markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was assessed in local isolates at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods. The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in genes associated with anti-malarial drug resistance, i.e., Pfcrt, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfmdr1, and the copy number of Pfmdr1 were evaluated for a panel of 174 isolates collected from patients recruited at the military hospital of Dakar from 14 October 2009 to 19 January 2010. Results: The Pfcrt 76T mutation was identified in 37.2% of the samples. The Pfmdr1 86Y and 184F mutations were found in 16.6% and 67.6% of the tested samples, respectively. Twenty-eight of the 29 isolates with the 86Y mutation were also mutated at codon 184. Only one isolate (0.6%) had two copies of Pfmdr1. The Pfdhfr 108N/T, 51I and 59R mutations were identified in 82.4%, 83.5% and 74.1% of the samples, respectively. The double mutant (108N and 51I) was detected in 83.5% of the isolates, and the triple mutant (108N, 51I and 59R) was detected in 75.3%. The Pfdhps 437G, 436F/A and 613S mutations were found in 40.2%, 35.1% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. There was no double mutant (437G and 540E) or no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E). The prevalence of the quadruple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G) was 36.5%. Conclusions: Since 2004, the prevalence of chloroquine resistance had decreased. The prevalence of isolates with high-level pyrimethamine resistance is 83.5%. The prevalence of isolates resistant to sulphadoxine is 40.2%. However, no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E), which is associated with a high level of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, has been identified to date. The resistance to amodiaquine remains moderate. © 2012 Wurtz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wurtz N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Wurtz N.,Aix - Marseille University | Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Bui K.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 18 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: An accurate diagnosis is essential for the rapid and appropriate treatment of malaria. The accuracy of the histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) Palutop+4® was assessed here. One possible factor contributing to the failure to detect malaria by this test is the diversity of the parasite PfHRP2 antigens. Methods. PfHRP2 detection with the Palutop+4® RDT was carried out. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified and sequenced from 136 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum that were collected in Dakar, Senegal from 2009 to 2011. The DNA sequences were determined and statistical analyses of the variation observed between these two genes were conducted. The potential impact of PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 sequence variation on malaria diagnosis was examined. Results: Seven P. falciparum isolates (5.9% of the total isolates, regardless of the parasitaemia; 10.7% of the isolates with parasitaemia ≤0.005% or ≤250 parasites/μl) were undetected by the PfHRP2 Palutop+4® RDT. Low parasite density is not sufficient to explain the PfHRP2 detection failure. Three of these seven samples showed pfhrp2 deletion (2.4%). The pfhrp3 gene was deleted in 12.8%. Of the 122 PfHRP2 sequences, 120 unique sequences were identified. Of the 109 PfHRP3 sequences, 64 unique sequences were identified. Using the Baker's regression model, at least 7.4% of the P. falciparum isolates in Dakar were likely to be undetected by PfHRP2 at a parasite density of ≤250 parasites/μl (slightly lower than the evaluated prevalence of 10.7%). This predictive prevalence increased significantly between 2009 and 2011 (P = 0.0046). Conclusion: In the present work, 10.7% of the isolates with a parasitaemia ≤0.005% (≤250 parasites/μl) were undetected by the PfHRP2 Palutop+4® RDT (7.4% by the predictive Baker'model). In addition, all of the parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (2.4% of the total samples) and 2.1% of the parasites with parasitaemia >0.005% and presence of pfhrp2 were not detected by PfHRP2 RDT. PfHRP2 is highly polymorphic in Senegal. Efforts should be made to more accurately determine the prevalence of non-sensitive parasites to pfHRP2. © 2013 Wurtz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Omar A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Camara M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Fall S.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ngom-Cisse S.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2014

Introduction. This report documents a rare case of Chryseobacterium indologenes urinary tract infection in Senegal. Chryseobacterium indologenes is an uncommon human pathogen reported in hospital outbreaks in Taiwan and there have been some sporadic cases reported in Europe and in the USA mainly from immune-suppressed patients. Case presentation. This case report describes a 42-year-old woman of Wolofa ethnicity who was hospitalized in our Department of Internal Medicine in a Senegalese university teaching hospital, with acute leukemia who died of severe sepsis 10 days following her hospitalization. A strain of Chryseobacterium indologenes isolated from her urine sample was resistant to several beta-lactams including ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256μg/mL), cefotaxime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 32μg/mL) and imipenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥32μg/mL), whereas it was susceptible to piperacillin (minimum inhibitory concentrations 16μg/mL), cefepime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 4μg/mL), ceftazidime (minimum inhibitory concentrations 4μg/mL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤0.25μg/mL) and all tested quinolones including nalidixic acid (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤2μg/mL). Conclusions: Chryseobacterium indologenes although uncommon, is an important pathogen causing infection in hospitalized patients. The management of this infection needs better identification, drug susceptibility testing and monitoring of immunosuppressed patients with long hospitalizations. © 2014 Omar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Objectives: We report two surgical techniques devised to restore a disrupted incudostapedial joint. Material and methods: Thirty patients underwent rebridging of distal portion of incus long process in the ENT Department of University of Grenoble and Saint-Etienne, between October 1998 and September 2002. Two types of ossicular prostheses were used: A titanium-gold angle prosthesis according to Plester Winkel Kurz® (n= 16 patients), and a hydroxylapatite prosthesis as Martin Incudo Prosthesis (n= 14 patients). Results: The average hearing gain in short term is of 8.30 dB for the Martin-Incudo group. It is of 523 dB in the Winkel group. Seven and three cases of failures (Residual Rinne > 20dB) were noticed respectively in the groups Martin-Incudo and Winkel. Seven and four cases of labyrinthisation were observed respectively in the groups Martin-Incudo and Winkel. The average hearing gain in long term is 3.43 dB in the Martin-Incudo group ; and 2.85 dB among patients with Winkel Kurz® prosthesis. Average residual Rinne is higher than 20 dB in the Winkel group. The hearing gain is not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The titanium partial prosthesis did not give good functional results. In the case of a limited lysis (< 2 mm) of the distal portion of incus, we use the cement or cartilage interposition. When ossicular chain cannot be preserved entirely, we privilege incus transposition or a titanium PORP. The Martin-Incudo prosthesis seems interesting in the event of lysis of 2 mm of the long process of incus, nevertheless engineering changes are necessary in order to make rigid the incudostapedial joint.

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