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Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Cattin V.,University of Lausanne | Spring P.,University of Lausanne | Malinverni R.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Gilliet M.,University of Lausanne
Dermatology | Year: 2013

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin commonly affecting the lung, the lymphoid system and the skin. We report here two cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in two former intravenous drug users following interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Both patients developed skin sarcoidosis along venous drainage lines of both forearms, coinciding with the areas of prior drug injections. The unique distribution of the skin lesions suggests that tissue damage induced by repeated percutaneous drug injections represents a trigger for the local skin manifestation of sarcoidosis. Interestingly, skin damage was recently found to induce the local expression IFN-α, a well-known trigger of sarcoidosis in predisposed individuals. Here we review the literature on sarcoidosis elicited in the context of IFN-α therapy and propose a new link between the endogenous expression of IFN-α and the induction of disease manifestations in injured skin. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Steck A.J.,University of Basel | Kinter J.,University of Basel | Renaud S.,Hopital Neuchatelois
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2011

DNA microarray analysis is a powerful tool for simultaneous analysis and comparison of gene products expressed in normal and diseased tissues. We used this technique to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in nerve biopsy samples of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and vasculitic neuropathy (VAS) patients. We found novel previously uncharacterized genes of relevance to CIDP or VAS pathogenesis. Of particular interest in CIDP were tachykinin precursor 1, which may be involved in pain mediation, stearoyl-co-enzyme A (CoA) desaturase, which may be a marker for remyelination, HLA-DQB1, CD69, an early T-cell activation gene, MSR1, a macrophage scavenger receptor, and PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5), a factor regulating nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activity. Genes upregulated in VAS included IGLJ3, IGHG3, IGKC, and IGL, which all function in B-cell selection or antigen recognition of B cells. Other upregulated genes included chemokines, such as CXCL9 and CCR2, as well as CPA3, a mast cell carboxypeptidase. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a modulator of immune response was upregulated both in CIDP and VAS. Microarray-based analysis of human sural nerve biopsies showed distinct gene expression patterns in CIDP and VAS. DEGs might provide clues to the pathogenesis of the diseases and be potential targets for therapeutics. © 2011 Peripheral Nerve Society.

Rehberg B.,University of Geneva | Wickboldt N.,University of Geneva | Juillet C.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Savoldelli G.,University of Geneva
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2015

Background The safety of patient-controlled i.v. analgesia (PCA) with remifentanil for obstetrical analgesia remains a matter of concern. The efficacy of remifentanil bolus application, that is, the coincidence between pain and remifentanil effect-site concentration, may be improved by forecasting contractions, but it is not known whether such a technique would also improve safety. Methods We recorded pain intensity during labour continuously using a handheld dynamometer in 43 parturients. Using these data, we compared different models in their ability to predict future contractions. In addition, we modelled remifentanil effect-site concentration using three simulated modes of bolus administration, with and without prediction of future contractions. Results The average duration of pain during contractions recorded by the dynamometer was 45 [14 standard deviation (sd)] s. The time interval between painful contractions was highly variable, with a mean of 151 (31 sd) s during the first and 154 (52 sd) s during the second recording. Using a simple algorithm (three-point moving average), the sd of the difference between predicted and observed inter-contraction intervals can be reduced from 0.95 to 0.79 min. However, the coincidence between remifentanil concentration and pain during contraction is not substantially improved when using these models to guide remifentanil bolus application. Conclusions Because of the large variability of inter-contraction intervals, the use of prediction models will not influence the mean remifentanil concentration in-between contractions. Using models predicting future contractions to improve the timing of remifentanil PCA bolus administration will not diminish the need of continuous clinical surveillance and other safety measures. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

Genne D.,Hopital Neuchatelois
Revue Medicale Suisse | Year: 2013

Unprotected fellatio, which has been practiced by all civilizations since mists of time, is now becoming a cause of concern due to the AIDS epidemic. Most of the sexually transmitted infectious diseases are concerned by fellatio and only few medical studies deal with this topic. This paper is therefore a non exhaustive review of risks brought upon by unprotected fellatio. It is almost impossible to assess the exact risk for a given infection because of the complexity of sexual intercourse, which is rarely exclusively oro-genital.

Lange C.M.,University of Lausanne | Lange C.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kutalik Z.,University of Lausanne | Morikawa K.,University of Lausanne | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

Elevated serum ferritin levels may reflect a systemic inflammatory state as well as increased iron storage, both of which may contribute to an unfavorable outcome of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of the role of serum ferritin and its genetic determinants in the pathogenesis and treatment of CHC. To this end, serum ferritin levels at baseline of therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin or before biopsy were correlated with clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including necroinflammatory activity (N = 970), fibrosis (N = 980), steatosis (N = 886), and response to treatment (N = 876). The association between high serum ferritin levels (>median) and the endpoints was assessed by logistic regression. Moreover, a candidate gene as well as a genome-wide association study of serum ferritin were performed. We found that serum ferritin ≥ the sex-specific median was one of the strongest pretreatment predictors of treatment failure (univariate P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-0.60). This association remained highly significant in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.0002, OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.20-0.61), with an OR comparable to that of interleukin (IL)28B genotype. When patients with the unfavorable IL28B genotypes were stratified according to high versus low ferritin levels, SVR rates differed by >30% in both HCV genotype 1- and genotype 3-infected patients (P < 0.001). Serum ferritin levels were also independently associated with severe liver fibrosis (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.68-4.25) and steatosis (P = 0.002, OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.35-3.91), but not with necroinflammatory activity (P = 0.3). Genetic variations had only a limited impact on serum ferritin levels. Conclusion: In patients with CHC, elevated serum ferritin levels are independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, hepatic steatosis, and poor response to interferon-alpha-based therapy. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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