La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

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Cattin V.,University of Lausanne | Spring P.,University of Lausanne | Malinverni R.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Gilliet M.,University of Lausanne
Dermatology | Year: 2013

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin commonly affecting the lung, the lymphoid system and the skin. We report here two cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in two former intravenous drug users following interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Both patients developed skin sarcoidosis along venous drainage lines of both forearms, coinciding with the areas of prior drug injections. The unique distribution of the skin lesions suggests that tissue damage induced by repeated percutaneous drug injections represents a trigger for the local skin manifestation of sarcoidosis. Interestingly, skin damage was recently found to induce the local expression IFN-α, a well-known trigger of sarcoidosis in predisposed individuals. Here we review the literature on sarcoidosis elicited in the context of IFN-α therapy and propose a new link between the endogenous expression of IFN-α and the induction of disease manifestations in injured skin. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Rehberg B.,University of Geneva | Wickboldt N.,University of Geneva | Juillet C.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Savoldelli G.,University of Geneva
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2015

Background The safety of patient-controlled i.v. analgesia (PCA) with remifentanil for obstetrical analgesia remains a matter of concern. The efficacy of remifentanil bolus application, that is, the coincidence between pain and remifentanil effect-site concentration, may be improved by forecasting contractions, but it is not known whether such a technique would also improve safety. Methods We recorded pain intensity during labour continuously using a handheld dynamometer in 43 parturients. Using these data, we compared different models in their ability to predict future contractions. In addition, we modelled remifentanil effect-site concentration using three simulated modes of bolus administration, with and without prediction of future contractions. Results The average duration of pain during contractions recorded by the dynamometer was 45 [14 standard deviation (sd)] s. The time interval between painful contractions was highly variable, with a mean of 151 (31 sd) s during the first and 154 (52 sd) s during the second recording. Using a simple algorithm (three-point moving average), the sd of the difference between predicted and observed inter-contraction intervals can be reduced from 0.95 to 0.79 min. However, the coincidence between remifentanil concentration and pain during contraction is not substantially improved when using these models to guide remifentanil bolus application. Conclusions Because of the large variability of inter-contraction intervals, the use of prediction models will not influence the mean remifentanil concentration in-between contractions. Using models predicting future contractions to improve the timing of remifentanil PCA bolus administration will not diminish the need of continuous clinical surveillance and other safety measures. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

Lange C.M.,University of Lausanne | Lange C.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Bibert S.,University of Lausanne | Dufour J.-F.,University of Bern | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2013

Background & Aims Recently, genetic variations in MICA (lead single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs2596542) were identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to be associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japanese patients. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this SNP is predictive of HCC development in the Caucasian population as well. Methods An extended region around rs2596542 was genotyped in 1924 HCV-infected patients from the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study (SCCS). Pair-wise correlation between key SNPs was calculated both in the Japanese and European populations (HapMap3: CEU and JPT). Results To our surprise, the minor allele A of rs2596542 in proximity of MICA appeared to have a protective impact on HCC development in Caucasians, which represents an inverse association as compared to the one observed in the Japanese population. Detailed fine-mapping analyses revealed a new SNP in HCP5 (rs2244546) upstream of MICA as strong predictor of HCV-related HCC in the SCCS (univariable p = 0.027; multivariable p = 0.0002, odds ratio = 3.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.90-8.27). This newly identified SNP had a similarly directed effect on HCC in both Caucasian and Japanese populations, suggesting that rs2244546 may better tag a putative true variant than the originally identified SNPs. Conclusions Our data confirms the MICA/HCP5 region as susceptibility locus for HCV-related HCC and identifies rs2244546 in HCP5 as a novel tagging SNP. In addition, our data exemplify the need for conducting meta-analyses of cohorts of different ethnicities in order to fine map GWAS signals. © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver.

Lange C.M.,University of Lausanne | Lange C.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kutalik Z.,University of Lausanne | Morikawa K.,University of Lausanne | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

Elevated serum ferritin levels may reflect a systemic inflammatory state as well as increased iron storage, both of which may contribute to an unfavorable outcome of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of the role of serum ferritin and its genetic determinants in the pathogenesis and treatment of CHC. To this end, serum ferritin levels at baseline of therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin or before biopsy were correlated with clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including necroinflammatory activity (N = 970), fibrosis (N = 980), steatosis (N = 886), and response to treatment (N = 876). The association between high serum ferritin levels (>median) and the endpoints was assessed by logistic regression. Moreover, a candidate gene as well as a genome-wide association study of serum ferritin were performed. We found that serum ferritin ≥ the sex-specific median was one of the strongest pretreatment predictors of treatment failure (univariate P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-0.60). This association remained highly significant in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.0002, OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.20-0.61), with an OR comparable to that of interleukin (IL)28B genotype. When patients with the unfavorable IL28B genotypes were stratified according to high versus low ferritin levels, SVR rates differed by >30% in both HCV genotype 1- and genotype 3-infected patients (P < 0.001). Serum ferritin levels were also independently associated with severe liver fibrosis (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.68-4.25) and steatosis (P = 0.002, OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.35-3.91), but not with necroinflammatory activity (P = 0.3). Genetic variations had only a limited impact on serum ferritin levels. Conclusion: In patients with CHC, elevated serum ferritin levels are independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, hepatic steatosis, and poor response to interferon-alpha-based therapy. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Laubscher B.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Laubscher B.,University of Lausanne | Banziger O.,Swiss Disability Insurance | Schubiger G.,Kinderspital
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

In 2003, the Swiss guidelines to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) were adapted. As two oral doses (2 mg, hour/day 4) of mixed micellar VK preparation had failed to abolish late VKDB, a third dose (week 4) was introduced. This report summarizes the new guidelines acceptance by Swiss pediatricians and the results of a prospective 6-year surveillance to study their influence on the incidence of VKDB. The new guidelines acceptance by Swiss pediatricians was evaluated by a questionnaire sent to all pediatricians of the Swiss Society of Paediatrics. With the help of the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit, the incidence of VKDB was monitored prospectively from July 1, 2005 until June 30, 2011. Over a 6-year period (458,184 live births), there was one case of early and four cases of late VKDB. Overall incidence was 1.09/105 (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.4-2.6). Late VKDB incidence was 0.87/105 (95 % CI 0.24-2.24). All four infants with late VKDB had an undiagnosed cholestasis at the time of bleeding; parents of 3/4 had refused VK prophylaxis, and in 1/4, the third VK dose had been forgotten. Compared with historical control who had received only two oral doses of mixed micellar VK (18 cases for 475,372 live births), the incidence of late VKDB was significantly lower with three oral doses (Chi2,Yates correction, P = 0.007). Conclusion VKDB prophylaxis with 3 × 2 mg oral doses of mixed micellar VK seems to prevent adequately infants from VKDB. The main risk factors for VKDB in breast-fed infants are parental VK prophylaxis refusal or an unknown cholestasis. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Darouichi M.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Constanthin P.E.,University of Geneva
Radiology Case Reports | Year: 2016

This article describes an unusual case of Riedel's thyroiditis and discusses its imagery, pathology, and treatment. © 2016 The Authors

Steck A.J.,University of Basel | Kinter J.,University of Basel | Renaud S.,Hopital Neuchatelois
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2011

DNA microarray analysis is a powerful tool for simultaneous analysis and comparison of gene products expressed in normal and diseased tissues. We used this technique to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in nerve biopsy samples of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and vasculitic neuropathy (VAS) patients. We found novel previously uncharacterized genes of relevance to CIDP or VAS pathogenesis. Of particular interest in CIDP were tachykinin precursor 1, which may be involved in pain mediation, stearoyl-co-enzyme A (CoA) desaturase, which may be a marker for remyelination, HLA-DQB1, CD69, an early T-cell activation gene, MSR1, a macrophage scavenger receptor, and PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5), a factor regulating nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activity. Genes upregulated in VAS included IGLJ3, IGHG3, IGKC, and IGL, which all function in B-cell selection or antigen recognition of B cells. Other upregulated genes included chemokines, such as CXCL9 and CCR2, as well as CPA3, a mast cell carboxypeptidase. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a modulator of immune response was upregulated both in CIDP and VAS. Microarray-based analysis of human sural nerve biopsies showed distinct gene expression patterns in CIDP and VAS. DEGs might provide clues to the pathogenesis of the diseases and be potential targets for therapeutics. © 2011 Peripheral Nerve Society.

Wolter L.,Hopital Neuchatelois | Santa V.D.,Hopital Neuchatelois
Revue Medicale Suisse | Year: 2013

Acute ethanol intoxication is frequent in emergency departments. The clinical presentation is highly variable and ranges from an inebriety to a coma and sometimes an agitated patient. You have to examine completely the patient and to do complementary exams with a capillary glycemia as the minimal standard. We must keep in mind that an acute ethanol intoxication is a diagnosis of exclusion. With trauma patients, we have to keep a low threshold for asking radiological advanced imaging, like cerebro-cervical CT scan. The patient should be reexamined frequently. The treatment is a supportive one. If the patient is agitated, you can give him haloperidol or a benzodiazepine. Before discharge, the patient should see the alcohologic team.

PURPOSE: PET with (68)Ga-DOTATOC allows for imaging and quantitative assessment of somatostatin receptor expression in neuroendocrine tumors (NET). The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze whether pre-therapeutic (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT is able to predict response to Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT).PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients with advanced stage NET were treated with a fixed dose of (90)Y-DOTATOC (5550 or 3700MBq). Prior to PRRT, each patient received (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. Treatment results were evaluated after 3months by CT, tumor marker levels and clinical course and correlated with (68)Ga-DOTATOC uptake (SUVmax) and the assumed uptake of (90)Y-DOTATOC in tumor manifestations (MBq/g). ROC analysis and pairwise comparison of area under the curve (AUC) were performed with pre-treatment uptake of (68)Ga-DOTATOC, assumed uptake of (90)Y-DOTATOC and treatment activity alone and in relation to body weight as continuous variables, and response/no response as classification variable.RESULTS: According to conventional criteria (tumor shrinkage, decrease of tumor markers, improved or stable clinical condition), 20 patients were classified as responders, 16 as non-responders and in four patients findings were equivocal. Using a SUV more than 17.9 as cut-off for favorable outcome, PET was able to predict treatment response of all responders and 15 out of 16 non-responders. All four patients with equivocal findings showed SUV less than or equal to 17.9 and soon experienced tumor progression. The assumed uptake of (90)Y-DOTATOC in tumor manifestations using a cut-off more than 1.26MBq/g as predictor of response was able to correctly classify 19 out of 20 responders, and 14 out of 16 non-responders. In all patients with equivocal findings, the assumed uptake of (90)Y-DOTATOC was below 1.26MBq/g.CONCLUSION: Pre-therapeutic (68)Ga-DOTATOC tumor uptake as well as assumed uptake of (90)Y-DOTATOC are strongly associated with the results of subsequent PRRT. The defined cut-off values should be confirmed by prospective studies and may then provide the rationale for individual dosing and selecting patients with high likelihood of favorable treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Genne D.,Hopital Neuchatelois
Revue Medicale Suisse | Year: 2013

Unprotected fellatio, which has been practiced by all civilizations since mists of time, is now becoming a cause of concern due to the AIDS epidemic. Most of the sexually transmitted infectious diseases are concerned by fellatio and only few medical studies deal with this topic. This paper is therefore a non exhaustive review of risks brought upon by unprotected fellatio. It is almost impossible to assess the exact risk for a given infection because of the complexity of sexual intercourse, which is rarely exclusively oro-genital.

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