Mandonnet E.,Hopital Lariboisiere |
Mandonnet E.,University Paris Diderot |
Duffau H.,Montpellier University
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized) and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved. © 2014 Mandonnet and Duffau.
Duker J.S.,Tufts University |
Kaiser P.K.,Cleveland Clinic |
Binder S.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Retinology and Biomicroscopic Laser Surgery |
Binder S.,Rudolph Foundation Clinic |
And 8 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013
Objective The International Vitreomacular Traction Study (IVTS) Group was convened to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based anatomic classification system for diseases of the vitreomacular interface (VMI). Design The IVTS applied their clinical experience, after reviewing the relevant literature, to support the development of a strictly anatomic OCT-based classification system. Participants A panel of vitreoretinal disease experts was the foundation of the International Classification System. Methods Before the meeting, panel participants were asked to review 11 articles and to complete 3 questionnaires. The articles were preselected based on searches for comprehensive reviews covering diseases of the VMI. Responses to questionnaires and the group's opinions on definitions specified in the literature were used to guide the discussion. Main Outcome Measures Optical coherence tomography-based anatomic definitions and classification of vitreomacular adhesion, vitreomacular traction (VMT), and macular hole. Results Vitreomacular adhesion is defined as perifoveal vitreous separation with remaining vitreomacular attachment and unperturbed foveal morphologic features. It is an OCT finding that is almost always the result of normal vitreous aging, which may lead to pathologic conditions. Vitreomacular traction is characterized by anomalous posterior vitreous detachment accompanied by anatomic distortion of the fovea, which may include pseudocysts, macular schisis, cystoid macular edema, and subretinal fluid. Vitreomacular traction can be subclassified by the diameter of vitreous attachment to the macular surface as measured by OCT, with attachment of 1500 μm or less defined as focal and attachment of more than 1500 μm as broad. When associated with other macular disease, VMT is classified as concurrent. Full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) is defined as a foveal lesion with interruption of all retinal layers from the internal limiting membrane to the retinal pigment epithelium. Full-thickness macular hole is primary if caused by vitreous traction or secondary if directly the result of pathologic characteristics other than VMT. Full-thickness macular hole is subclassified by size of the hole as determined by OCT and the presence or absence of VMT. Conclusions This classification system will support systematic diagnosis and management by creating a clinically applicable system that is predictive of therapeutic outcomes and is useful for the execution and analysis of clinical studies. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jois P.,University of Florida |
Mebazaa A.,Hopital Lariboisiere
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2012
Cardiac and kidney disease are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the population, and may exist concurrently. One of the most important comorbidities in heart failure is renal dysfunction. The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndromes is complicated, and has been divided into five categories. Cardio-Renal syndrome type 2 is described by chronic cardiac abnormalities resulting in impaired renal function. It is important to recognize this entity and to understand the pathophysiology underlying the cardiac and renal disorders to distinguish best treatment practices. The success in improved outcomes lies in optimization of heart failure therapies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Hotchkiss R.S.,University of Washington |
Monneret G.,Immunology Laboratory |
Payen D.,Hopital Lariboisiere
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Failures of highly touted trials have caused experts to call for re-evaluation of the current approach toward sepsis. New research has revealed key pathogenic mechanisms; autopsy results have shown that most patients admitted to intensive care units for treatment of sepsis had unresolved septic foci at post mortem, suggesting that patients were unable to eradicate invading pathogens and were more susceptible to nosocomial organisms, or both. These results suggest that therapies that improve host immunity might increase survival. Additional work showed that cytokine production by splenocytes taken post mortem from patients who died of sepsis is profoundly suppressed, possibly because of so-called T-cell exhaustion-a newly recognised immunosuppressive mechanism that occurs with chronic antigenic stimulation. Results from two clinical trials of biomarker-guided therapeutic drugs that boosted immunity showed promising findings in sepsis. Collectively, these studies emphasise the degree of immunosuppression that occurs in sepsis, and explain why many previous sepsis trials which were directed at blocking inflammatory mediators or pathogen recognition signalling pathways failed. Finally, highly encouraging results from use of the new immunomodulatory molecules interleukin 7 and anti-programmed cell death 1 in infectious disease point the way for possible use in sepsis. We hypothesise that immunoadjuvant therapy represents the next major advance in sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Coutinho J.M.,University of Amsterdam |
Ferro J.M.,Hospital Santa Maria |
Canhao P.,Hospital Santa Maria |
Barinagarrementeria F.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirurgia |
And 2 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2010
Background and Purpose: There is no consensus whether to use unfractionated heparin or low-molecular weight heparin for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. We examined the effect on clinical outcome of each type of heparin. Methods: A nonrandomized comparison of a prospective cohort study (the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis) of 624 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Patients not treated with heparin (n=107) and those who sequentially received both types of heparin (n=99) were excluded from the primary analysis. The latter were included in a secondary analysis, allocated according to the type of heparin given first. The primary end point was functional independency at 6 months (modified Rankin scale score ≤2). Secondary end points were complete recovery (modified Rankin scale score 0 to 1), mortality, and new intracranial hemorrhages. Results: A total of 119 patients received low-molecular weight heparin (28%) and 302 received unfractionated heparin (72%). Significantly more patients treated with low-molecular weight heparin were functionally independent after 6 months, both in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 2.1; CI, 1.0 to 4.2) and after adjustment for prognostic factors and imbalances (odds ratio, 2.4; CI, 1.0 to 5.7). In the secondary analysis, there was a similar, nonsignificant trend (odds ratio, 1.7; CI, 0.80 to 3.6). Low-molecular weight heparin was associated with less new intracerebral hemorrhages (adjusted odds ratio, 0.29; CI, 0.07 to 1.3), especially in patients with intracerebral lesions at baseline (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; CI, 0.04 to 0.99). There was no difference in complete recovery and mortality. Conclusions: This nonrandomized study in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis suggests a better efficacy and safety of low-molecular weight heparin over unfractionated heparin. Low-molecular weight heparin seems preferable above unfractionated heparin for the initial treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.
Duffau H.,Montpellier University |
Duffau H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Mandonnet E.,Hopital Lariboisiere
Acta Neurochirurgica | Year: 2013
Diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is a growing pre-cancerous tumor, often diagnosed in patients with no or only mild deficit. Maximal and early surgical resection is currently the first therapeutic option, in order to delay the malignant transformation and thus increase the overall survival. Preserving the quality of life (QoL) is nonetheless another priority. Here, our purpose is to weight the value of the extent of resection versus the neurological worsening that could be voluntarily generated by a radical resection; that is, to study the "onco-functional balance" at the individual level. To this end, we will examine DLGG involving the supplementary motor area and DLGG involving visual pathways. We will consider the benefit-risk ratio of different strategies of resection, according to the brain structures actually invaded and their plastic potential. The aim is to increase both the quantity of life and the time with a normal QoL, on the basis of strong interactions between the tumor course, brain reorganization and multistage surgical approach adapted to each patient over time. To this end, beyond the conceptual and technical issues, the most important point remains the honest and unique relationship between the surgical oncologist and the patient, based on clear and complete information about the behavior of DLGG versus the expected medical and social consequences of a resection over years. In other words, in the era of "evidence-based medicine", it is crucial to not forget "individual-based medicine" by offering tailored resections adapted to each patient. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Duffau H.,Montpellier University |
Duffau H.,Montpellier University Hospital Center |
Moritz-Gasser S.,Montpellier University Hospital Center |
Moritz-Gasser S.,Montpellier University |
And 2 more authors.
Brain and Language | Year: 2014
From recent findings provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming, we re-examine the neural basis of language. We studied structural-functional relationships by correlating the types of language disturbances generated by stimulation in awake patients, mimicking a transient virtual lesion both at cortical and subcortical levels (white matter and deep grey nuclei), with the anatomical location of the stimulation probe. We propose a hodotopical (delocalized) and dynamic model of language processing, which challenges the traditional modular and serial view. According to this model, following the visual input, the language network is organized in parallel, segregated (even if interconnected) large-scale cortico-subcortical sub-networks underlying semantic, phonological and syntactic processing. Our model offers several advantages (i) it explains double dissociations during stimulation (comprehension versus naming disorders, semantic versus phonemic paraphasias, syntactic versus naming disturbances, plurimodal judgment versus naming disorders); (ii) it takes into account the cortical and subcortical anatomic constraints; (iii) it explains the possible recovery of aphasia following a lesion within the "classical" language areas; (iv) it establishes links with a model executive functions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Charansonney O.L.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien |
Vanhees L.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Cohen-Solal A.,Hopital Lariboisiere
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014
Background Physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), and even a few sedentary behaviors (SB) are strongly and independently linked to improved survival rate. However, key questions remain: what are the physiological interrelationships between SB, PA, and PF? How should we differently emphasize promoting PA, increasing PF with exercise, and decreasing SB among other prevention measures? What are the interrelationships of both PA and SB levels with drug treatment efficacy? Methods To address these questions we developed an integrated patient-centric model combining physiology with epidemiological evidence to characterize the individual risk attached to PA level, PF, and SB. Epidemiological data were collected by extensive literature review. Results Nine meta-analyses, 198 cohort studies (3.8 million people), and 13 controlled trials were reviewed.A high level of SB induces chronic stress and increases the risk of both chronic disease and mortality.Vigorous PA increases PF and physiological reserve, thereby improving survival rate. This effect is not mediated by improved traditional risk factors. The risk for most individuals is a mix of high SB, low to mild PA, and low to mild PF. This model can improve the individualized prescription of PA modalities. Furthermore, the benefit of treatments such as statins or beta-blockers can be cancelled out if a decrease in PA or an increase in SB is induced by drug related side effects. Conclusions To improve patient management both types of therapeutic interventions and dose should be carefully chosen for each individual in order to maintain/increase PA level while decreasing SB. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Lukaszewicz A.C.,Hopital Lariboisiere |
Payen D.,Hopital Lariboisiere
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010
A high rate of death from septic shock persists despite general improvements in care. The relative failure of mechanistically based therapies in various clinical trials should also trigger a reconsideration of such mechanistic approaches. Despite reversion of shock by hydrocortisone, the similar death rate compared with nonsteroid-treated patients suggests that factors other than shock itself are responsible for death. This may be predetermined and relate to gene variants, the functionality of gene expression, age, an association with chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer, or perhaps the treatments being given for these diseases. These aspects are discussed in this review in the light of arguments that support a hypothesis of outcome predetermination. Not only constitutive factors, but also acute and chronic environmental factors may be responsible. An important consequence would be the ability to perform early prognostication in an individual patient using biomarkers. On this basis, new therapies could be tested to reduce mortality rates with the response and toxicity of these therapies being predefined using pharmacoge-netic testing. Copyright © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Barral M.,Hopital Lariboisiere
Diagnostic and interventional imaging | Year: 2013
To compare the capabilities of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized ADC using the pancreatic parenchyma as reference organ in the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions. Thirty-six patients with focal pancreatic lesions (malignant, n=18; benign tumors, n=10; focal pancreatitis, n=8) underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) at 1.5-Tesla using 3 b values (b=0, 400, 800 s/mm(2)). Lesion ADC and normalized lesion ADC (defined as the ratio of lesion ADC to apparently normal adjacent pancreas) were compared between lesion types using nonparametric tests. Significant differences in ADC values were found between malignant (1.150 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) and benign tumors (2.493 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.004) and between benign tumors and mass-forming pancreatitis (1.160 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.0005) but not between malignant tumors and mass-forming pancreatitis (P=0.1092). Using normalized ADC, significant differences were found between malignant tumors (0.933 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s), benign tumors (1.807 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) and mass-forming pancreatitis (0.839 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P<0.0001). Our preliminary results suggest that normalizing ADC of focal pancreatic lesions with ADC of apparently normal adjacent pancreatic parenchyma provides higher degrees of characterization of focal pancreatic lesions than the conventional ADC does. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.