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Roche-la-Molière, France

Penault-Llorca F.,Center Jean Perrin | Penault-Llorca F.,University dAuvergne | Chenard M.-P.,Hopital Hautepierre | Bouche O.,Reims University Hospital Center | And 5 more authors.
Annales de Pathologie

Trastuzumab in combination with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin has been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) for the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (immunohistochemistry [IHC] 3+ or IHC 2+/ fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]-positive or IHC 2+/ silver in situ hybridization [SISH]-positive) metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction. HER2 testing in gastric cancer (GC) differs from testing in breast cancer (BC) due to major differences in the tumor biology; as the disease is progressing rapidely, we recommend to test every GC at diagnosis and to offer a rapid testing (less than five days) in the metastatic setting. IHC should be the initial testing methodology and FISH or SISH should be used to retest IHC 2+ samples. As GC more frequently shows incomplete membrane staining and focal staining for HER2, HER2 testing guidelines have been adapted from BC protocols. The scoring system is slightly different in respect to the characteristics of GC. For in situ hybridization, SISH should be used in order to identify heterogeneous staining with a higher accuracy than FISH. Enrollment in training and quality assurance programs is highly recommended. In case of negativity on biopsy, it is recommended to retest for HER2, when possible, on surgical specimens and/or metastasis. This will ensure accurate and consistent HER2 testing results, which will allow the appropriate selection of patients eligible for treatment with trastuzumab. © 2011. Source

Leveque D.,Hopital Hautepierre
Bulletin du Cancer

Biosimilar drugs are biologic drugs clinically similar to the reference products. They correspond to a generic approach applied to biologic agents. Biosimilars are aimed to provide cheaper drugs by enhancing the concurrency. The approval of biosimilars is abbreviated when compared to that of the reference biologics but includes clinical trials (distinguishing them from the generics). Current available biosimilars in oncology are filgrastim and epoietin alpha. In the next future, will be launched rituximab and trastuzumab. In France, the development of biosimilars is faced with many hurdles that necessitates a better information of physicians and a greater price discount in the out-patient setting. More globally, harmonisation of recommendations particularly concerning extrapolation of indications and nomenclature are needed for a better acceptance. © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Source

Paillard C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lutz P.,Hopital Hautepierre | Michel G.,Hopital de la Timone | Leverger G.,Assistance Publique | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin du Cancer

Better understanding of the antitumor effect of allogeneic transplant and the need to reduce the toxicity of the procedure, particularly in elderly patients have spurred the development of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (RIC). These regimens allow fast engraftment with very low chemotherapy-induced toxicity. They are widely used in adults and there are numerous studies to demonstrate their feasibility and efficiency, but in pediatrics, the place of RIC remains to be determined. They can be proposed in two pediatric populations. First, solid tumors or hematological malignancies remaining unresponsive to the reference strategies according to best practices in pediatrics. Second, in children presenting malignancies for which allografting is the only recognized curative indication but is contraindicated with myeloablative conditioning regimens. More than 100 pediatrics cases have been reported in various pathologies, including blood diseases, acute leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and solid tumors, and promising results published recently underline how RIC warrants further investigation in prospective comparative multicentric trials. The use of new post-graft treatment modalities is expected to pave the way to the development of RIC in pediatric patients. ©John Libbey Eurotext. Source

Moor B.K.,Hopital du Valais | Ehlinger M.,Hopital Hautepierre | Arlettaz Y.,Hopital du Valais
Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research

Background: During the last decades, intramedullary nailing has become the standard treatment for diaphyseal fractures of long bones. Numerous innovative techniques and devices have been proposed to simplify distal locking. Each has its own limitations and, as a result, the fluoroscopy-dependent " free-hand technique" remains the most popular method. However, radiation exposure to the patient and operating room staff remains a concern. Methods: Before the development of a new radiation-independent, nail-mounted targeting system, we mathematically analyzed the aiming accuracy that such a system has to achieve. The correctness of this mathematical model was evaluated using a mechanical testing apparatus. Findings: We found a quite large targeting range for the unimpeded passage of the drill bit through the locking hole of a given nail. Important degrees of nail bending can thereby be compensated. As predicted by the mathematical formula, a 4-mm drill bit passed the distal locking hole of a 320/11. mm femoral nail up to a deflection of ±13. mm in the coronal plane. Interpretation: This mathematical model can be considered to be an additional tool for the development of new targeting devices. Combining our mathematical model with data previously published, not only torsional deformation along the longitudinal axis of the nail but also bending in the coronal plane can approximately be neglected. Hence, the three-dimensional aiming process can be simplified to the determination of the interlocking hole of the nail in the sagittal plane provided that the insertion-induced nail deformation in vivo stays in the range of that observed in vitro. Level of evidence: Level III. Basic sciences control study. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

De Seze J.,Hopital Hautepierre

Inflammatory optic neuritis represents a frequent clinical situation in neurology and ophthalmology. In those parts of the world where multiple sclerosis is common, it is the condition most discussed as the cause of optic neuritis. However, the risk for conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis is evaluated at only around 50% after 15 years of follow-up. The risk is higher in cases in whom abnormalities typical of multiple sclerosis are found on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and oligoclonal bands found on cerebrospinal fluid protein electrophoresis with no corresponding bands in serum. When these investigations are normal, optic neuritis is usually considered as "idiopathic" with a suspected viral aetiology, but in some cases, a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosis, or Sjögren syndrome may be diagnosed. In rare cases, either recurrent optic neuritis or myelitis may occur without any evidence for multiple sclerosis. In the first case, it corresponds to a recently characterised disorder referred to as chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy and in the second case to a recently better identified entity, neuromyelitis optica. In the present paper, the differential diagnosis of inflammatory optic neuritis is presented from multiple sclerosis to infectious optic neuritis, systemic disease, and neuromyelitis optica. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

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