Mion G.,Hopital Cochin
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2017
Ketamine's history begins in the fifties in Detroit, at Parke-Davis laboratories. In 1956, Maddox synthetized phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl elicited severe excitation with a prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street-drug under the name of "angel dust". Calvin Stevens synthesized ketamine in 1962. The drug was studied in humans in 1964, by Domino and Corssen who described the so-called "dissociative anesthesia". Ketamine was patented in 1966 under the name of Ketalar for human use and was administered to soldiers during the Vietnam war. The psychedelic effects and the arrival of propofol prompted the shelving of ketamine. However, the discovery of the NMDA-receptor and its non-competitive inhibition by ketamine revolutionized the pathophysiology of hyperalgesia and mental functioning. In early 1990s, the discovery of opioid-induced hyperalgesia elicited a paradigm shift in the management of pain, and a comeback of ketamine, as an anti-hyperalgesic drug. Ketamine is nowadays under the spotlight in the field of treatment-resistant depression and has been proposed as a potential fast antidepressant in patients with high suicidal risk. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Legoupil N.,Hopital Cochin
Revue du Podologue | Year: 2015
Osteoporosis is a diffuse skeletal, silent and painless disease. Patients are often unaware of its presence until occurrence of fractures. Fractures to the upper end of the femur and vertebrae are responsible for increase in morbidity, mortality and decrease in autonomy. It is essential to detect osteoporosis and assess individual risk of fracture. Bone strength depends on bone mass, microarchitecture and bone g quality . One of the settings, mass, is easily evaluated by bone densitometry, which is reliable and non-invasive. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Portalez D.,Clinique Pasteur |
Mozer P.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere |
Cornud F.,Hopital Cochin |
Renard-Penna R.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere |
And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2012
Background: Wide variations in acquisition protocols and the lack of robust diagnostic criteria make magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of prostate cancer (PCa) one of the most challenging fields in radiology and urology. Objective: To validate the recently proposed European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system for multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. Design, setting, and participants: An institutional review board-approved multicentric prospective study; 129 consecutive patients (1514 cores) referred for mpMRI after at least one set of negative biopsies. Intervention: Transfer of mpMRI-suspicious areas on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound images by 3D elastic surface registration; random systematic and targeted cores followed by core-by-core analysis of pathology and mpMRI characteristics of the core locations. The ESUR scores were assigned after the procedure on annotated Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine archives. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Relationships between ESUR scores and biopsy results were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The Yates correction and Pearson χ2 tests evaluated the association between categorical variables. A teaching set was randomly drawn to construct the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ESUR score sum (ESUR-S). The threshold to recommend biopsy was obtained from the Youden J statistics and tested in the remaining validation set in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Results and limitations: Higher T2-weighted, dynamic weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced ESUR scores were observed in areas yielding cancer-positive cores. The proportion of positive cores increased with the ESUR-S aggregated in five increments (ESUR-S 3-5: 2.9%; ESUR-S 6-8: 11.1%; ESUR-S 9-10: 38.2%; ESUR-S 11-12: 63.4%; and ESUR-S 13-15: 83.3%; p < 0.0001). A threshold of ESUR-S ≥9 exhibited the following characteristics: sensitivity: 73.5%; specificity: 81.5%; positive predictive value: 38.2%; negative predictive value: 95.2%; and accuracy: 80.4%. Although the study was not designed to compare repeat biopsy strategies, more targeted cores than random systematic cores were found to be positive for cancer (36.3% compared with 4.9%, p < 0.00001). Conclusions: In the challenging situation of repeat biopsies, the ESUR scoring system was shown to provide clinically relevant stratification of the risk of showing PCa in a given location.© 2012 European Association of Urology.
Zeidler H.,Hannover Medical School |
Calin A.,BMI Bath Clinic |
Amor B.,Hopital Cochin
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The history of ankylosing spondylitis, the main representative of the spondyloarthritides, is dating back to several thousand years BC and recently proven for mediaeval skeleton by HLA-B27 typing with modern molecular techniques. In modern time, the history of spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by fluctuation between lumping and splitting. Actually, the recent advent of new classification criteria demands to discuss the consequences and clinical implications in the historical context of the development of the concept of SpA including the controversy of lumping and splitting. RECENT FINDINGS: The new Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial and peripheral SpA are primarily developed to provide support for clinical trials with biologicals and other treatment modalities, which intend to cover the whole spectrum, especially early clinical manifestations of spondyloarthritides. New insights into genetics and the evolving etiological role of Chlamydia in SpA including the most recent finding of the effective combination antibiotic therapy are major advances in the evolving history of SpA. SUMMARY: The concept of SpA is well accepted for the classification, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of a high proportion of individuals with inflammatory rheumatic conditions. For further advances research technologies are now available to enlarge the current body of clinical, immunologic, and genetic studies using pivotal microbiologic research and new antimicrobial therapeutic strategies. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
Hodgins J.L.,University of Toronto |
Veillette C.,Toronto Western Hospital |
Biau D.,Hopital Cochin |
Sonnadara R.,McMaster University
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2014
Purpose To assess orthopaedic trainees performing diagnostic knee arthroscopies and evaluate procedural competence using a novel statistical method, the Cumulative Summation Test for Learning Curve (LC-CUSUM). Methods Twenty orthopaedic trainees in postgraduate year (PGY) 1 through 5 performed diagnostic knee arthroscopy and were evaluated intraoperatively with a validated 10-point knee task-specific checklist (TSCL) and 50-point global rating scale (GRS). A score of 40 points or greater (of 50 points) for the GRS and 8 points or greater (of 10 points) for the knee TSCL was considered to indicate a successful procedure. For the LC-CUSUM analysis, adequate performance was defined as a 10% failure rate, inadequate performance was defined as a 30% failure rate, and an acceptable deviation from adequate performance was defined as 10%. A limit h equal to 1.6 was selected to give a true-discovery rate of 90% and a false-discovery rate of 10% over 50 procedures. Results A total of 340 consecutive procedures were performed by 20 trainees during the 12-month study period. The cumulative number of arthroscopic procedures performed by trainees before study start increased with increasing PGY. The median number of arthroscopic procedures performed per trainee was 16.5 (interquartile range, 14 to 21.75). Competency in knee arthroscopy for the TSCL was achieved by 8 trainees (40%), after a median of 16 procedures (interquartile range, 13 to 20), and for the GRS by only a single trainee (5%), after 14 procedures. Threshold-adjusted curves stratified by PGY level enabled multiple trainees to achieve competency for both the TSCL and GRS. Conclusions The LC-CUSUM can be successfully applied to knee arthroscopy to provide an individualized assessment of performance and quantitatively demonstrate competency for basic arthroscopic tasks. Clinical Relevance The LC-CUSUM is an effective method to evaluate procedure competence in arthroscopic training and can provide objective feedback and benchmarks in the learning phase. © 2014 by the Arthroscopy Association of North America.
Levy M.M.,University of Rhode Island |
Rhodes A.,St George's, University of London |
Phillips G.S.,Ohio State University |
Townsend S.R.,California Pacific Medical Center |
And 7 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015
Purpose: To determine the association between compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) performance bundles and mortality. Design: Compliance with the SSC performance bundles, which are based on the 2004 SSC guidelines, was measured in 29,470 subjects entered into the SSC database from January 1, 2005, through June 30, 2012. Compliance was defined as evidence that all bundle elements were achieved. Setting: Two hundred eighteen community, academic, and tertiary care hospitals in the United States, South America, and Europe. Patients: Patients from the emergency department, medical and surgical wards, and ICU who met diagnosis criteria for severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods: A multifaceted, collaborative change intervention aimed at facilitating adoption of the SSC resuscitation and management bundles was introduced. Compliance with the SSC bundles and associated mortality rate was the primary outcome variable. Results: Overall lower mortality was observed in high (29.0%) versus low (38.6%) resuscitation bundle compliance sites (p < 0.001) and between high (33.4%) and low (32.3%) management bundle compliance sites (p = 0.039). Hospital mortality rates dropped 0.7% per site for every three months (quarter) of participation (p < 0.001). Hospital and intensive care unit length of stay decreased 4% (95% CI: 1% - 7%; p = 0.012) for every 10% increase in site compliance with the resuscitation bundle. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that increased compliance with sepsis performance bundles was associated with a 25% relative risk reduction in mortality rate. Every 10% increase in compliance and additional quarter of participation in the SSC initiative was associated with a significant decrease in the odds ratio for hospital mortality. These results demonstrate that performance metrics can drive change in clinical behavior, improve quality of care, and may decrease mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.
Gouin F.,Nantes University Hospital Center |
Gouin F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Dumaine V.,HOpital Cochin
Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research | Year: 2013
Background: Curettage is a well-established treatment modality for giant cell tumors of bone. The purpose of this retrospective study by the French Sarcoma and Bone Tumor Study Groups (GSF-GETO) was to analyze various tumor-specific and surgery-specific factors that could influence the rate of local recurrence. Patients and method: Data was collected from patients with giant cells tumors of the appendicular skeletal who were treated by intralesional curettage. The hazard ratio for tumor recurrence was calculated for the different variables collected and a multifactorial analysis carried out. Results: One hundred and ninety-three surgical procedures were included from nine centers. One hundred and seventy-one (89%) were primary tumors and 22 had been referred after one or more recurrences. The mean follow-up was 6. years and 11. months. The distal femur and proximal tibia were the most common locations: 42.5 and 34.2% of cases, respectively. The bone defect after curettage was filled in 176 cases (91.2%) and left empty in 16 cases. Local adjuvant treatment (phenol, alcohol, cryotherapy or combination treatment) was used in 39 cases (20.2%) and systemic adjuvant treatment used in 24 cases (calcitonin 11 and zoledronic acid 13). Local recurrence occurred in 71 cases (36.8%). Risk factors for local recurrence were an empty defect, a defect filled with autograft, and patients treated before 2005. Multivariate analysis showed that the only risk factors for local recurrence were a surgical procedure before 2005 (odds ratio 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2, 7.9) P=. 0.017) and a bone defect filled with autograft (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI: 1.3, 11.6] P=. 0.013). Conclusion: Neither tumor-specific nor surgery-specific factors such as adjuvant treatment were found to be as risk factors for local recurrence after curettage of giant cell tumors in the appendicular skeleton. As recently reported, high-quality local curettage is probably the most effective technique to prevent local recurrence. The current study suggests that two factors associated with more recent management of these tumors in France, high-speed burring and centralization to skilled surgical teams, can improve the quality of curettage. Level of evidence: 4, retrospective cohort study. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Renard-Penna R.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere |
Mozer P.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere |
Cornud F.,Hopital Cochin |
Barry-Delongchamps N.,Hopital Cochin |
And 3 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2015
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and a Likert scale in the detection of prostate cancer in a cohort of patients undergoing initial prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board-approved two-center prospective study included 118 patients with normal digital rectal examination (DRE) results but elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (4-20 ng/mL) who were referred for initial prostate biopsies and had one suspicious (Likert scale score, ≤3) focus at prebiopsy 1.5-T multiparametric MR imaging performed with T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted [DW], and dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging. Targeted core biopsies and random systematic core biopsies were performed. The elementary unit for analysis was the core. Relationships were assessed by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Yates corrected and Pearson x2 tests were used to evaluate categoric variables. A training set was randomly drawn to construct the receiver operating characteristic curves for the summed PIRADS scores and for the Likert scale scores. The thresholds to recommend biopsy were obtained from the Youden J statistics and were tested in the remaining validation set in terms of predictive characteristics. Interobserver variability was analyzed by using weighed k statistics in a random set of 50 patients. Results: Higher T2-weighted, DW, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging PI-RADS scores were observed in areas that yielded cancer- positive cores. The percentage of positive cores increased with the sum of scores aggregated in five classes as follows: For summed PI-RADS scores of 3-5, the percentage of positive cores was 2.3%; for scores of 6-8, it was 5.8%; for scores of 9 or 10, it was 24.7%; for scores of 11 or 12, it was 51.8%; and for scores of 13-15, it was 72.1% (P for trend, <.0001). For the threshold of summed PI-RADS scores of 9 or greater, sensitivity was 86.6%, specificity was 82.4%, the positive predictive value was 52.4%, the negative predictive value was 96.5%, and accuracy was 83.2%. The respective data for Likert scale scores of 3 or greater were 93.8%, 73.6%, 44.3%, 98.1%, and 73.3%. Good interobserver agreement was observed for the Likert scale (k = 0.80) and the summed PI-RADS (k = 0.73) scoring systems. Conclusion: PI-RADS provided the site-specific stratified risk of cancerpositive cores in biopsy-naive men with normal DRE results and elevated PSA levels. There was no significant difference between summed PI-RADS scores of 9 or greater and Likert scale scores of 3 or greater in the detection of cancer in the peripheral zone. © RSNA, 2015.
Farhi D.,Hopital Cochin |
Dupin N.,Hopital Cochin
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2010
Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory disease of the stratified squamous epithelia of unknown etiology. LP affects most frequently the oral mucosa, but it may also involve other mucosa and the skin. Oral LP (OLP) most frequently affects woman aged between 30 and 60 years. Histopathologic examination typically shows orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, basal cell degeneration, and a dense well-defined infiltrate of lymphocytes in the superficial dermis. OLP lesions may result from the induction of keratinocytes apoptosis by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells stimulated by a yet unidentified self-antigen on a genetically predisposed patient. The association of OLP with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been more consistently demonstrated in the Mediterranean area. Although HCV RNA and HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been retrieved in the mucosal lesions of patients with chronic HCV infection and OLP, the eventual pathophysiology of HCV in OLP lesions remains unclear. Available treatments of OLP are not curative, and many have potentially prominent side effects. The objectives of OLP management should be to prevent and screen for malignant transformation and alleviate symptoms on the long-term. Avoidance of potential precipitating drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and local trauma, as well as strict oral hygiene, is essential. The first-line pharmacologic treatment relies on topical steroids. Systemic steroids should be limited to the short-term cure of severe refractory OLP. Life-long clinical follow-up, at least annually, is fundamental. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marsac J.,Hopital Cochin
Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine | Year: 2013
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive, practical and reproducible measure of autonomic nervous system function. Although the heart is reasonably stable, the time between two beats (R-R) can be very different. HRV is the time variation between two consecutive heartbeats. HRV is believed to correspond to the balance between the sympathic and parasympathic influences on the intrinsic rhythm of the sinoatrial node. HRV is influenced by lifestyle factors, including physical activity, eating habits, sleep pattern, and smoking. In adults, decreased HR V is associated with a higher risk of cardiac events, including death, and is a predictor of hypertension. HRV may also have predictive value for life expectancy and health. HR V changes due to lifestyle factors precede the onset of cardiovascular disorders. Measurement of HRV and its components is of major interest for medical practitioners and public health specialists, in order to predict and evaluate the risk of cardiometabolic events related to lifestyle factors.