PubMed | Brest University Hospital Center, CHRU de Lille, Nouvelles cliniques nantaises, Clinique Ambroise Pare and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of cardiovascular diseases | Year: 2016
Despite the increasingly high rate of implantation of pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in elderly patients, data supporting their clinical and cost-effectiveness in this age stratum are ambiguous and contradictory. We reviewed the data regarding the applicability, safety and effectiveness of conventional pacing, ICDs and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in elderly patients. Although periprocedural risk may be slightly higher in the elderly, the implantation procedure for PMs and ICDs is still relatively safe in this age group. In older patients with sinus node disease, the general consensus is that DDD pacing with the programming of an algorithm to minimize ventricular pacing is preferred. In very old patients presenting with intermittent or suspected atrioventricular block, VVI pacing may be appropriate. In terms of correcting potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, the effectiveness of ICD therapy is similar in older and younger individuals. However, the assumption of persistent ICD benefit in the elderly population is questionable, as any advantageous effect of the device on arrhythmic death may be attenuated by higher total non-arrhythmic mortality. While septuagenarians and octogenarians have higher annual all-cause mortality rates, ICD therapy may remain effective in selected patients at high risk of arrhythmic death and with minimum comorbidities despite advanced age. ICD implantation among the elderly, as a group, may not be cost-effective, but the procedure may reach cost-effectiveness in those expected to live more than 5-7years after implantation. Elderly patients usually experience significant functional improvement after CRT, similar to that observed in middle-aged patients. Management of CRT non-responders remains globally the same, while considering a less aggressive approach in terms of reinterventions (revision of left ventricular [LV] lead placement, addition of a right ventricular or LV lead, LV endocardial pacing configuration). Overall, physiological age, general status and comorbidities rather than chronological age per se should be the decisive factors in making a decision about device implantation selection for survival and well-being benefit in elderly patients.
PubMed | Brest University Hospital Center, Nouvelles cliniques nantaises, Clinique Ambroise Pare, Center hospitalier and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Geriatrie et psychologie neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement | Year: 2016
Despite the increasingly high rate of implantation of pacemakers (PM) and cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) in elderly patients, data supporting their clinical and cost-effectiveness in this age stratum are ambiguous and contradictory. We reviewed the data regarding the applicability, safety, and effectiveness of the conventional pacing, ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in elderly patients. Although peri-procedural risk may be slightly higher in the elderly, the procedure of implantation of PMs and ICDs is still relatively safe in this age group. In older patients with sinus node disease, a general consensus is that dual chamber pacing, along with the programming of an algorithm to minimise ventricular pacing is preferred. In very old patients presenting with intermittent or suspected AV block, VVI pacing may be appropriate. In terms of correcting potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, the effectiveness of ICD therapy is comparable in older and younger individuals. However, the assumption of persistent ICD benefit in the elderly population is questionable, as any advantage of the device on arrhythmic death may be attenuated by a higher total non-arrhythmic mortality. While septuagenarians and octogenarians have higher annual all-cause mortality rates, ICD therapy may remain effective in selected patients at high risk of arrhythmic death and with minimum comorbidities despite advanced age. ICD implantation among the elderly, as a group, may not be cost-effective, but the procedure may reach cost-effectiveness in those expected to live >5-7 years after implantation. The elderly patients usually experience a significant functional improvement after CRT, similar to that observed in middle-aged patients. Management of CRT non responders remains globally the same, while considering a less aggressive approach in terms of re interventions (revision of LV lead placement, addition of a RV or LV lead, LV endocardial pacing configuration). Overall, age, comorbidities and comprehensive geriatric assessment should be the decisive factor in making a decision on device implantation selection for survival and well-being benefit in elderly patients.
Bloch F.,Hopital Broca |
Bloch F.,University of Poitiers |
Thibaud M.,University of Poitiers |
Dugue B.,University of Poitiers |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Aging and Health | Year: 2011
Objective: To carry out meta-analyses on psychotropic drugs and to provide an update of the risk of falling in the elderly people related to psychotropic drugs. Design: Meta-analyses of studies on psychotropic drugs. Results: 177 studies are included, of which 71 have data on risk factors associated with psychotropic drugs. The odds ratio and 95% Cl for associations between use of psychotropic drugs and fall are 1.78 and 1.57-2.01, respectively. This result is statistically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity disappears in the group of very old participants for each class. Conclusion: Our study confirms the association between falls in the elderly people and psychotropic drugs. These results are similar to those of former meta-analyses but with different methods. It shows that these meta-analyses on psychotropic drugs have a small impact on prescribing habits. They only give evidence to support the association between psychotropic drugs and falls even if there is no proven link. © The Author(s) 2011.
Rouch L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Rouch L.,University Paul Sabatier |
Rouch L.,Toulouse University Hospitals |
Cestac P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 22 more authors.
CNS Drugs | Year: 2015
Background: Chronic hypertension, particularly midlife high blood pressure, has been associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. In this context, antihypertensive drugs might have a preventive effect, but the association remains poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine all published findings that investigated this relationship and discuss the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of antihypertensive medication use. Methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for publications from 1990 onwards mentioning hypertension, antihypertensive drugs, cognitive decline, and dementia. Results: A total of 38 relevant publications, corresponding to 18 longitudinal studies, 11 randomized controlled trials, and nine meta-analyses were identified from the 10,251 articles retrieved in the literature search. In total, 1,346,176 subjects were included in these studies; the average age was 74 years. In the seven longitudinal studies assessing the effect of antihypertensive medication on cognitive impairment or cognitive decline, antihypertensive drugs appeared to be beneficial. Of the 11 longitudinal studies that assessed the effect of antihypertensive medication on incidence of dementia, only three did not find a significant protective effect. Antihypertensive medication could decrease the risk of not only vascular dementia but also Alzheimer's disease. Four randomized controlled trials showed a potentially preventive effect of antihypertensive drugs on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline: SYST-EUR (Systolic Hypertension in Europe Study) I and II, with a 55 % reduction in dementia risk (3.3 vs. 7.4 cases per 1,000 patient years; p < 0.001); HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation), with a 41 % reduction in cognitive decline associated with stroke (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6-63); and PROGRESS (Perindopril Protection against Recurrent Stroke Study), with a 19 % reduction in cognitive decline (95 % CI 4-32; p = 0.01). Meta-analyses have sometimes produced conflicting results, but this may be due to methodological considerations. The lack of homogeneity across study designs, patient populations, exposition, outcomes, and duration of follow-up are the most important methodological limitations that might explain the discrepancies between some of these studies. Conclusion: Antihypertensive drugs, particularly calcium channel blockers and renin-angiotensin system blockers, may be beneficial in preventing cognitive decline and dementia. However, further randomized controlled trials with longer periods of follow-up and cognition as the primary outcome are needed to confirm these findings. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Duron E.,University of Paris Descartes |
Hanon O.,Hopital Broca
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010
Chronic hypertension is associated with an increased risk of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this context, the role of anti-hypertensive therapy for the prevention and delay of cognitive decline and dementia is of central importance. Most longitudinal studies have shown a significant inverse association between anti-hypertensive therapies and dementia incidence and for some of these, particularly in AD. Seven randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trials have evaluated the benefit of antihypertensive treatments on cognition. Three of them found positive results in term of prevention of dementia (SYST-EUR) or cognitive decline (PROGRESS, HOPE). Others disclosed non-significant results (MRC, SHEP, SCOPE, HYVET-COG). This discrepancy emphasizes the difficulty to perform such trials: the follow-up has to be long enough to disclose a benefit, a large number of patients is needed for these studies, and because of ethical reasons some anti-hypertensive treatments are often prescribed in the placebo group. Results of the two more recent meta-analyses are inconsistent, possibly due to methodological issues. Antihypertensive treatments could be beneficial to cognitive function by lowering blood pressure and/or by specific neuroprotective effect. Three main antihypertensive subclasses have been associated with a beneficial effect on cognitive function beyond blood pressure reduction (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin-AT1-receptor-blockers). Further long-term randomized trials, designed especially to assess a link between antihypertensive therapy and cognitive decline or dementia are therefore needed with cognition as the primary outcome. A low blood pressure threshold that could be deleterious for cognitive function should also be determined. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors.
Wu Y.-H.,Hopital Broca |
Wu Y.-H.,University of Paris Descartes |
Wrobel J.,Hopital Broca |
Wrobel J.,University of Paris Descartes |
And 8 more authors.
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2014
Background: There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods: Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results: Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults' uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion: It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to destigmatize assistive devices. © 2014 Wu et al.
Thomas-Anterion C.,CNRS Laboratory of Cognitive Mechanisms |
Hugonot-Diener L.,Hopital Broca
Pratique Neurologique - FMC | Year: 2014
Summary The MoCA was built as a screening test for detecting patients in the general population with light cognitive dysfunctions and at a higher risk for dementia. It is available in 20 languages (http://www.mocatest.org/), but it does not have normative data in French. This test assesses different cognitive functions in 10 tasks: executive functions, attention and concentration, memory, language, visuospatial skills, capacities of abstraction, calculation and orientation. The administration time ranges from 6 to 15 minutes. The pathological threshold of 26/30 appears to be relevant. The test was developed to screen for pre-Alzheimer MCI, but its executive component has been found to be more sensitive for patients with an executive function impairment, such as in Parkinson's or Huntington's disease, but not for patients with vascular disease. This test contribution to the screening procedure for executive function disorders, avoiding over-correlation with the sociocultural level. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Faucounau V.,Hopital Broca |
Wu Y.-H.,Hopital Broca |
Boulay M.,Hopital Broca |
De Rotrou J.,Hopital Broca |
Rigaud A.-S.,Hopital Broca
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2010
Purpose: This paper examines and reviews studies on the efficacy of computer-based cognitive intervention programmes in the elderly affected by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI patients are at higher risk to progress to dementia. Recent effort has been made to slow the cognitive decline and delay the onset of dementia in this population. Method: MEDLINE sources were searched with the following subject headings: computer-based cognitive intervention, cognitive stimulation, cognitive training, aging, elderly, cognitive impairment. Selected studies were quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. Results: Several studies reported encouraging results on cognitive interventions programmes as a means to improve cognitive abilities and emotional states and to decrease subjective memory complaints in MCI patients. Conclusion: Though both traditional and computer-based cognitive intervention programmes seem to be effective, the computer-based ones present more advantages: 1) they could individualize the programme tailored to the patient's neuropsychological pattern and needs. 2) they permit the user to make an immediate objective comparison with data collected earlier and thus help in setting up a systematic training plan by providing instant value-free feedback. 3) they offer a possibility of a widescale dissemination.
Duron E.,Hopital Broca |
Hanon O.,Hopital Broca
Psychologie et NeuroPsychiatrie du Vieillissement | Year: 2010
Atrial fibrillation (AF), which prevalence increases with age, is a growing public health problem and a well known risk factor for stroke. On the other hand, dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly, and with aging of the population in developed countries, the number of demented patients will increase in absence of prevention. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia) have been found, with various degree of evidence, to be associated with vascular dementia but also, surprisingly, with Alzheimer's disease. This review is devoted to the links between atrial fibrillation, cognitive decline and dementia. Globally, transversal studies showed a significant association between atrial fibrillation, cognitive decline and dementia. However, these studies are particularly sensitive to various biases. In this context, recent longitudinal studies of higher level of evidence have been conducted to assess the link between AF and dementia. One study disclosed a high incidence of dementia among patients suffering from atrial fibrillation during a 4.6 years follow-up. Similarly another study showed that atrial fibrillation was significantly associated with conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia during a 3 years follow-up. Nevertheless two other longitudinal studies did not find any significant association between AF and dementia, but this discrepancy should be interpreted taking into account that the comparability of all these studies is moderate because they were using different methodologies (population, cognitive testing, and mean follow-up). Possible explanatory mechanisms for the association between AF and the risk of dementia are proposed, such as thrombo-embolic ischemic damage and cerebral hypo perfusion due to fluctuations in the cardiac output. Thus, there is some evidence that FA could be associated with cognitive decline and dementia but this link should be supported by more powerful long term longitudinal studies.
Dumont A.,Hopital Broca
PSN | Year: 2010
Cocaine addiction has medical, psychological, cognitive, social, and legal consequences. For a while confined to a targeted audience, epidemiological data show that cocaine addiction considerably "increases" in Europe and reaches all social categories, including socialized people. The cognitive-behavioral approach provides a conceptual frame allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in at the beginning and all along the cocaine addiction. Consumption and addiction to cocaine are then considered learned behaviors. Cognitive-behavioral therapies applied to the treatment of cocaine addiction include different therapeutic techniques that modify maladjusted behaviors, thoughts, and feelings leading to consumption. On a pharmacologic point of view, there is no drug treatment for this disorder, even though promising tracks emerged, especially the N-acétylcystéine. © 2010 Springer Verlag France.