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Bravo F.,State University of Feira de Santana | Cordeiro D.,State University of Feira de Santana | Jocque M.,Rutgers University | Jocque M.,Hope House Projects
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Larvae of a new species of Psychodinae, Moruseodina cusucoensis gen. et sp. nov., were collected during a biodiversity survey of aquatic invertebrates in plant held water bodies (phytotelmata) in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. The fourth instar larva, pupa and adult male are described based on reared material. The new species was difficult to place in an existing genus, thus a new genus name is proposed. Based on similarities in morphological characteristics, ecology and distribution, the species Moruseodina superba comb. nov. and Moruseodina conspicua comb. nov. are transferred from Telmatoscopus Eaton, 1904 to the new genus. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Jocque M.,Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen KBIN | Jocque M.,Rutgers University | Jocque M.,Hope House Projects | Field R.,University of Nottingham
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness-altitude, richness-environment, richness-size, richness-habitat complexity and richness-isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness and abundance correlated most strongly, and positively, with habitat size, which accounted for about a third of the variance in both. Apart from bromeliad size (equivalent of the species-area relationship), we found remarkably little evidence of classic biogeographic and ecological relationships with species richness in this system. Community composition correlated with altitude, bromeliad size and position, though less than 20% of the variation was accounted for by the tested variables. The turnover component of dissimilarity between the communities correlated with altitude, while the nestedness-resultant component was related to bromeliad size. The unexplained variance could reflect a large stochastic component in the system, associated with the ephemerality of the habitat patches (both the plants themselves and the fluctuations in their water content) and stochasticity due to the dispersal dynamics in the system. We conclude that there is a small contribution of classic biogeographic factors to the diversity and community composition of aquatic invertebrates communities in bromeliads. This may be due to the highly dynamic nature of this system, with small patch sizes and high emigration rates. The patterns may mostly be driven by factors affecting colonisation success. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Kolby J.E.,1671 Edmund Terrace | Padgett-Flohr G.E.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Field R.,Hope House Projects | Field R.,University of Nottingham
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction. © Inter-Research 2010. Source

Yam E.A.,Population Council | Mnisi Z.,Swaziland National AIDS Programme | Sithole B.,Hope House Projects | Kerrigan D.L.,Behavior and Society | Tsui A.O.,Family and Reproductive Health
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: Nonbarrier modern contraceptive users often are less likely to use condoms, particularly with more intimate sex partners. We examine whether female sex workers (FSWs) in Swaziland who use nonbarrier contraception use condoms less consistently and whether this inverse association varies by relationship type. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a survey among 325 Swazi FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. Each woman reported on condom use during sexual activity in the past month with up to 3 partner types (new clients, regular clients, noncommercial partners). We used a generalized estimating equation model to conduct a relationship-level multivariate logistic regression analysis of correlates of consistent condom use in the past month. We tested whether relationship type modified the effect of nonbarrier modern contraception on condom use. RESULTS: Each participant reported up to 3 observations, for a total of 892 measures of condom use in the past month. Compared with sexual activity with new clients, sex with regular clients and noncommercial partners was less likely to be protected by consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio, 0.30 [95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.47] for regular clients; adjusted odds ratio, 0.15 [95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.24] for noncommercial partners). There was no significant association between condom use and nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the need to provide condoms and condom-compatible lubricants and targeted education programs for FSWs and their male sex partners to encourage the consistent use of these commodities with all sex partners, irrespective of the use of other contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2013 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Source

Yam E.A.,Population Council | Mnisi Z.,Ministry of Health | Mabuza X.,Hope House Projects | Kerrigan D.,Behavior and Society | Tsui A.,Family and Reproductive Health
International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health | Year: 2013

Context: Female sex workers are at heightened risk of both HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. Non barrier modern contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, but offer no HIV protection. A better understanding of sex workers' use of condoms and non barrier methods is needed to help them meet their contraceptive and STI protection needs. Methods: A 2011 respondent-driven sampling survey collected reproductive health and contraceptive use data from 325 female sex workers in Swaziland. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between selected characteristics and four outcomes of contraceptive use over the past month: consistent condom use alone; nonbarrier modern contraceptive use (either alone or with inconsistent condom use); dual method use; and inconsistent condom use, other method use or nonuse. Adjusted predicted probabilities were also calculated to determine patterns of association. Results: After adjustments were made for background and behavioral factors, 16% of female sex workers were found to be consistent users of condoms alone; 39% used non barrier modern methods (without consistent condom use); 8% were dual method users; and 38% were inconsistent condom users or used other methods or none. Women who reported recent condom failure were less likely than others to be consistent condom users (6% vs. 22%). Consistent use of condoms alone was more common among women who had had no noncommercial partners in the past month than among those who reported two or more such partners (39% vs. 3%). In addition, respondents who had children were more likely than their nulliparous counterparts to report use of non barrier methods alone (65% vs. 14%). Conclusions: Inconsistent or no condom use among nonbarrier contraceptive users underscores the need to incorporate HIV prevention into family planning interventions, particularly among female sex workers who have children and noncommercial partners. Source

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