Hooge Consulting Service Inc.

Eagle Mountain, UT, United States

Hooge Consulting Service Inc.

Eagle Mountain, UT, United States

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Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Mathis G.F.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Lumpkins B.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Ponebsek J.,Tanin Sevnica d. d | Moran D.,Prinova Animal Nutrition
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Dietary Farmatan® Powder (~73% tannins) was used to determine live performance doseresponses of male Cobb broiler chicks on built-up litter top dressed with wood shavings in a summer trial. Dietary Farmatan® tannin concentrations used were: 0 (negative control), 250, 750, or 1,000 ppm. Positive control (antibiotic) diets had BMD® 55 ppm (0-35 days) and Stafac® (35-42 days). Feeds were steam pelleted and fed as crumbles or pellets. There were 45 chicks/pen initially and 8 replicate pens/treatment (8 blocks of 6 pens each; Randomized Complete Block Design; LSD p = 0.05). The body weight (BW) gains were not significantly different from 0-21 d or 0-35 days but from 0-42 days (p = 0.002) were, respectively (kg): 2.238b, 2.238b, 2.299a, 2.282ab, 2.290a, 2.316a. Mortality-adjusted Feed Conversion Ratios (MAFCR) from 0-21 days (p = 0.002) were, respectively: 1.513a, 1.488ab, 1.476bc, 1.469bc, 1.454c and 1.442c. The MAFCR from 0-35 days (p = 0.001) were, respectively: 1.666a, 1.657ab, 1.646abc, 1.626cd, 1.621d and 1.641bcd. The MAFCR from 0-42 days (p = 0.004) were, respectively: 1.694a, 1.698a, 1.685ab, 1.665bc, 1.661bc and 1.655c. Stafac® 22 ppm in finisher (35-42 days) gave the best BW gain and feed conversion ratio. Litter moisture % at 21 days was lower (p = 0.032) using Farmatan® 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm than BMD® 55 ppm and at 42 days was lower (p = 0.046) for each Farmatan® level than for negative control. Farmatan® 750 or 1,000 ppm improved (p=0.008) 42-d litter score (0 driest to 5 wettest) compared to negative control. Mortality % from 0-42 days and litter nitrogen % at 42 days were unaffected by treatment. Farmatan® improved BW gain and MAFCR and promoted drier litter. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.


Pierce J.L.,Alltech Inc. | Mathis G.F.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Lumpkins B.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc.
Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

A 52-day pen trial on 10.2 cm built-up litter topped with pine shavings used a randomized complete block design (Tukey's HSD p≤0.05). A total of 2,160 Cobb male chicks were randomly assigned to 48 pens (12 blocks) at 45 chicks/pen providing 0.0771m2 per chick. Four phase feeds were used (0-17, 17-31, 31-42, and 42-52 days). Salinomycin (66.14mg/kg) and 3-Nitro® 20 (50.0mg/kg) were added from 0-31 days. Dietary treatments were: 1) negative control (nCON); 2) BMD® at 55.12mg/kg 0-31 days, Stafac® at 22.05mg/kg 31-52 days (AGP); 3) Actigen® (ACT) at 400mg/kg; and 4) BMD® at 55.12mg/kg 0-31 days, Stafac® at 22.05mg/kg 31-52 days plus Actigen® (ACT) at 400 mg/kg (AGP+ACT). From0-17days, feed conversion ratio (FCR;p=0.026) and mortality-adjusted FCR (MAFCR; p=0.027) were lower for AGP and AGP+ACT than nCON, with ACT intermediate and statistically separate from other groups. At 31 days, body weight (BW; p=0.043) was greater for AGP+ACT than nCON, with AGP and ACT intermediate. From 0-31 days, FCR (p<0.001) and MAFCR (p<0.001) were lower for AGP, ACT, and AGP+ACT than nCON. At 42 days, BW was greater (p=0.006) for AGP and AGP+ACT than nCON, with ACT intermediate. The 0-42 day FCR (p=0.002) and MAFCR (p=0.006) were lower for AGP and AGP+ACT than nCON, with ACT intermediate. At 52 days, BW were greater (p<0.001) for AGP, ACT, and AGP +ACT than nCON. From 0-52 days, FCR (p<0.001) and MAFCR (p<0.001) were lower for AGP+ACT than nCON, with AGP and ACT intermediate, and mortality percent was lower (p=0.096) for AGP+ACT than nCON, with AGP and ACT in between. Based on performance, Actigen® at 400 mg/kg was statistically equivalent toBMD® /Stafac® from 0-52 days and BMD®/ Stafac® plus Actigen® was the most effective treatment. © 2012, Japan Poultry Science Association.


Wu D.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang L.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wen C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Zhou Y.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of high dietary copper concentrations obtained from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC, 58% copper) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4, 25% copper) in replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in duck diets. 2. A total of 960 one-day-old Cherry Valley meat-strain ducks were divided into 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicates per treatment, in a 6-week feeding trial. The ducks were fed a basal diet supplemented with AGP (40 mg zinc bacitracin/kg and 40 mg garlicin/kg of diet) or 150 mg of Cu/kg of diet, given as either CuSO4 or TBCC. 3. The body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and mortality of ducks were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the feed/gain ratio of ducks that were fed TBCC diets was significantly lower than those of ducks that were fed CuSO4 diets and were similar to those in the AGP group. 4. TBCC increased the Cu content in the liver tissue of ducks compared with the content in those that were fed the diet supplemented with AGP. TBCC also increased the Fe and Zn content in breast muscles compared with that in ducks that were fed the diet supplemented with CuSO4. 5. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly higher in the serum of ducks that received the diet supplemented with TBCC than AGP or CuSO4. TBCC treatment decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum of ducks compared with groups supplemented with CuSO4. 6. No significant difference was observed in liver or muscle fat content among the different dietary treatment groups. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was lower in ducks fed AGP diets than those fed CuSO4 diets. 7. It was concluded that the replacement of AGP with 150 mg of Cu/kg of feed from TBCC improved the feed efficiency, trace mineral deposition and antioxidant status more than when the source of copper was CuSO4. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Wang L.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Wen C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou Y.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC®, 58% copper; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) and copper sulfate pentahydrate (25% copper) were evaluated as dietary supplements at substantially higher than requirement levels for improving growth and carcass characteristics of ducks. Newly hatched Cherry Valley meat-strain ducklings (1,280) were assigned randomly to 4 treatment groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 1 of the following: 1) 10 mg copper/kg diet from TBCC® (control; standard diets); 2) 150 mg copper/kg from copper sulfate pentahydrate; 3) 150 mg copper/kg from TBCC®; or 4) 0 mg added copper/kg (8.9 and 7.2 mg copper/kg in starter and grower by analysis) but with antibiotic growth promoter (40 mg zinc bacitracin and 40 mg garlicin/kg). Feed/gain ratios of high TBCC® and of antibiotic-fed ducks from 21-42 and 0-42 d were improved (p = 0.045; p = 0.029) vs. control ducks, with high copper sulfate pentahydrate results intermediate. The high TBCC® group had lower (p = 0.045) mortality % 21-42 d than the high copper sulfate pentahydrate group, with control or antibiotic-fed group results intermediate. For the entire trial (0-42d), feed/gain ratios of high TBCC® or antibiotic-fed groups were significantly improved (p = 0.029) compared to control group, with the high copper sulfate pentahydrate group intermediate. The high TBCC® (150 mg copper/kg of feed) significantly lowered feed/gain ratio of meat ducks compared with control (10 mg copper from TBCC®/kg of feed) during the starter, grower and entire trial periods and reduced mortality % compared with high copper sulfate pentahydrate (150 mg copper from copper sulfate pentahydrate/kg of feed) during the grower period. © Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Pierce J.L.,Alltech Inc. | McBride K.W.,Alltech Inc. | Rigolin P.J.,Alltech Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

A meta-analysis of body weight and feed conversion ratio results from broiler chicken pen trials plus a few commercial trials (2001-2009) from several countries was conducted to demonstrate effects of a dietary enzyme complex (Allzyme® SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) versus no supplement (negative control) on live performance. In the statistical meta-analysis, 28 references provided results for 51 comparisons (paired t-test) from which overall averages for body weight and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The final age (days) in each trial or in the experimental feeding period was noted and an estimate of final age was calculated using the ending age in each trial. Broiler chicken final body weight with the dietary enzyme complex product was found to be 0.057 kg or 3.73% greater than unsupplemented chicken body weight whereas feed conversion ratio was lowered by 0.043 or 2.64% with the enzyme product. These changes in live performance exceed those of Fisher and Wilson (1974) and those predicted by linear regression analysis using data from Jackson et al. (1982) and Waldroup (1996) for 75 extra kcal ME/kg of diet. Therefore, the 75 kcal ME/kg uplift used in the manufacturer's ingredient matrix appears to be conservative for the enzyme complex product based on results in the cited publications. Base on results presented herein, this enzyme complex product is recommended for use in broiler chicken feeds either by addition on top to take advantage of expected benefits or by reformulating the diets with 75 kcal less ME/kg (along with -0.1% calcium, -0.1% available phosphorus and -1% essential amino acids used in formulation). The usual rate of inclusion is 0.02% or 200 g/tonne. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Pierce J.L.,Alltech Inc. | McBride K.W.,Alltech Inc. | Rigolin P.J.,Alltech Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

A statistical meta-analysis was conducted using results from 16 laying hen trials (1995-2008; plus some undated reports) from several countries to demonstrate effects of a dietary enzyme complex (+SSF; Allzyme111 SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) versus no supplement (nCON, negative control) on 6 performance parameters. The paired t-test (Statistix 8, Analytical Software, Tallahassee, Florida USA) was used in the statistical analysis. A total of 26 comparisons from 16 trials were possible for hen-day egg production, egg weight and daily egg mass production and 24 comparisons from 14 trials were possible for daily feed intake, feed/dozen eggs and kg feed/kg eggs. Overall averages for the parameters were calculated and levels of significance (p values) were given. The inclusion rates for the enzyme product in the diets was listed. Hen-day egg production was numerically (p = 0.136) improved by 1.09% actual (+1.29% relative) for +SSF compared to nCON diets. Egg weight was significantly (p = 0.006) greater for eggs from hens fed +SSF rather than nCON diets (+0.89 g or +1.49%). Daily egg mass produced was significantly greater (p = 0.014) for +SSF than for nCON fed hens (+1.74 g/hen/day or +3.47%). Feed intake was numerically (p = 0.281) lowered by 0.50 g/hen daily (-0.44%) by using +SSF diets compared to nCON diets. Feed/dozen eggs was significantly (p = 0.028) reduced by 0.027 kg/dozen (1.65%) and kg feed/kg eggs was significantly (p = 0.004) reduced by 0.069 (3.04%) for +SSF diets compared to nCON diets. Enzyme supplementation (Allzyme® SSF) at 150 g/tonne of feed is recommended to improve the egg weight, daily egg mass and feed conversion ratios of laying hens. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Connolly A.,Alltech Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Statistical meta-analyses of results from broiler trials in 2009-2011 using dietary Actigen® were conducted. Actigen® (Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky, USA) is a second-generation, yeast cell wall product considered to be a growth permitter through its roles in immune modulation and improved intestinal health. Parameters evaluated were dietary inclusion rates for Actigen® age of birds, Body Weight (BW), feed conversion ratio or feed/gain ratio and mortality %. Nine reports were collected allowing 15 comparisons of negative control (nCON) diets and Actigen® supplemented diets fed during the entire trials. Similarly, 9 reports were collected allowing 11 comparisons of positive control (antibiotic supplemented) diets and Actigen® supplemented diets. When added to basal diets, Actigen® at average inclusion rates by phases of 520/400/347 g/tonne (n = 15) and broiler age of 41.87 days (n = 15) significantly and beneficially changed body weight by +0.129 kg (+5.41%), feed conversion ratio or feed/gain ratio by-0.046 (-2.54%) and mortality % by -0.76 (-10.5% relative to nCON). Compared with positive control (antibiotic) results, dietary Actigen® at average inclusion rates by phases of 535/331/238 g/tonne (n = 11) and broiler age of 43.64 days (n = 11) non significantly changed body weight by +0.016 kg (+0.62%), feed conversion ratio or feed/gain ratio by -0.003 (-0.17%) and mortality % by +0.57 (+7.97% relative to positive control). Broiler results for antibiotic or Actigen® supplemented diets were statistically equivalent. Comparisons between this present metaanalysis and those done previously on another yeast cell wall compound (Bio-Mos®) suggest that the second generation product Actigen® may be more effective in terms of growth promotion. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Kiers A.,Alltech Inc. | Connolly A.,Alltech Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Statistical meta-analyses of results from broiler pen trials and a few field trials published during 2009-2012 using dietary Actigen were conducted. Actigen (Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky, USA) is a second-generation, yeast cell wall product considered to be a "growth permitter" through its roles in immune modulation and improved intestinal health. Parameters evaluated were dietary inclusion rates for Actigen, age of birds, body weight, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) or feed/gain ratio (F/G ratio) and mortality %. Eighteen reports were collected allowing 29 comparisons of negative control (nCON) diets and Actigen supplemented diets (200 to 800 g/tonne) fed during the entire trials. Similarly, 15 reports were collected allowing 20 comparisons of positive control (antibiotic supplemented) diets and Actigen supplemented diets (200 to 882 g/tonne). When added to basal diets continuously to an average broiler age of 41.72 days (n = 29), Actigen significantly and beneficially changed body weight by +0.0.80 kg (+3.34%), FCR or F/G ratio by -0.033 (-1.84%) and mortality % by -0.80 (-12.5% relative to nCON). Compared with positive control (antibiotic) results, dietary Actigen fed continuously to an average broiler age of 42.73 days (n = 20) gave results statistically equivalent with those of dietary antibiotics. Comparisons between this present metaanalysis and those done previously on another yeast cell wall compound (Bio-Mos) suggest that the second generation product Actigen may be more effective in terms of growth promotion. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2013.

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