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Frederick, MD, United States

Hood College is a co-educational liberal arts college serving 2,422 students, 1,434 of whom are undergraduates. Located in Frederick, Maryland, the school lies 50 miles west of Baltimore and northwest of Washington, DC.Established in 1893 by the Potomac Synod of the Reformed Church of the United States as the Woman's College of Frederick, the school was officially chartered in 1897 "with the purpose and object of creating and maintaining a college for the promotion and advancement of women, and the cultivation and diffusion of Literature, Science and Art." The college's founding was the result of the Potomac Synod's decision to transition the coeducational Mercersburg College into the all-male Mercersburg Academy and establish a women's college south of the Mason–Dixon line. In 1913, the institution was renamed Hood College by its Board of Trustees to honor its largest benefactor, Margaret Scholl Hood, whose land donation allowed the school to move from rented facilities in downtown Frederick to its own campus in the northwest region of the City.An all-female institution until 1971, male students were initially granted only commuter status. This continued until 2003, when male students were extended the option of residential status. The influx of new students has led to major changes at the school, including extensive dormitory renovations and the construction of a new athletic building and a new tennis and aquatic center. Wikipedia.

Sanders J.M.,Hood College
Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery

This article describes the stigma women perceive as drug addicts and the strategies used to confront that stigma once they become members of a mutual support group, Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Stigma is heavily associated with being a drug addict and even more pronounced for the female drug addict. Public policy and media continue to focus on women's reproductive roles, igniting and perpetuating the stigmata associated with being female and addicted. The heavy emphasis on women's reproductive roles contributes to a double standard that women perceive it as unique to them as compared with their male counterparts. This study surveys a sample of women in NA that represents a potentially highly stigmatized group by race and class and uncovers the extent to which women perceive stigma both in their active addiction and once in recovery. Unexpectedly, women from a more socially disadvantaged background do not necessarily experience more stigma than their more privileged White, middle-class counterparts. Not surprisingly, women who have been involved in NA for longer periods of time and have completed the 12 steps perceive the least amount of stigma. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kundey S.M.A.,Hood College | Fountain S.B.,Kent State University
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes

Both associative and rule-learning theories have been proposed to account for rat serial pattern learning, but individually they are unable to account for a variety of recent behavioral and psychobiological phenomena. The present study examined the role of rule learning versus discriminative learning in rat pattern learning using a classic associative phenomenon: blocking. Rats learned to press levers in an 8-lever circular array according to a rule-based serial pattern, 123-234-345-456-567-678-781-812, where digits indicate the correct lever in the array for each trial. Each pattern presentation contained a chunk with a final element violation, such as 454 instead of 456. Rats learned in a first phase that a noise signaled the violation chunk; then, a concurrent spatial cue was added in a second phase. A test with spatial cues alone showed that blocking occurred. The results suggest that associative learning mediated cuing of violation elements. Taken together with other behavioral and psychobiological evidence already reported in the literature implicating rule learning when rats learn this pattern in this paradigm, these results implicate multiple concurrent learning processes in rat serial pattern learning. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source

This article provides a comparative feminist analysis of women in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). A second-wave and third-wave theoretical lens is applied to women in these two different recovery programs. Although notable differences are found between women in AA and NA, the common thread that links the second-wave feminist to third-wave feminist analysis is the shared persistent stigma and shame that addicted women from 12-Step programs experience. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sanders J.M.,Hood College
Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery

This research examines from a feminist perspective the participation of women in the gendered space of women-only Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings. Taken from a survey of women who attend women-only meetings in a metropolitan area, data reflect that these women hold liberal feminist views, have experienced severe forms of oppression before recovery, but once in AA, help to create a culturally feminist environment by supporting women-only meetings. Moreover, in spite of AA's alleged patriarchal culture, this sample of women acknowledges and supports its own gendered space in AA, but does so as a supplement to and not as a substitute for AA in general. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

De Los Reyes A.,University of Maryland University College | Thomas S.A.,University of Maryland University College | Kundey S.M.A.,Hood College
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

Researchers use multiple informants' reports to assess and examine behavior. However, informants' reports commonly disagree. informants' reports often disagree in their perceived levels of a behavior ("low" versus "elevated" mood), and examining multiple reports in a single study often results in inconsistent findings. Although researchers often espouse taking a multi-informant assessment approach, they frequently address informant discrepancies using techniques that treat discrepancies as measurement error. Yet, recent work indicates that researchers in a variety of fields often may be unable to justify treating informant discrepancies as measurement error. In this review, the authors advance a framework (Operations Triad Model) outlining general principles for using and interpreting informants' reports. Using the framework, researchers can test whether or not they can extract meaningful information about behavior from discrepancies among multiple informants' reports. The authors provide supportive evidence for this framework and discuss its implications for hypothesis testing, study design, and quantitative review. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. Source

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