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Choi H.-S.,Korea University | Kim S.Y.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Park Y.,Korea University | Jung E.Y.,Jeonju University | Suh H.J.,Korea University
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2014

Background: In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods: Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Results: Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with the control (p < 0.05). In particular, deglycosylated ginsenosides including Rg3, which are known as bioactive compounds, were significantly increased after Rapidase treatment (p < 0.05). The Rapidase-treated group also increased the skin permeability of polyphenols compared with the control, showing the highest level of total sugar content among the enzyme treatment groups. Conclusion: This result showed that Rapidase induced the conversion of ginsenoside glycosides to aglycones. Meanwhile, Cytolase PCL5 and Econase treatments led to a significant increase of uronic acid (acidic polysaccharide) level. Taken together, our data showed that the treatments of enzymes including Rapidase are useful for the conversion and increase of ginsenosides in ginseng extracts or products. © 2014, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Source


Kwon D.-J.,Hallym University | Kwon D.-J.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Bae Y.-S.,Kangwon National University | Ju S.M.,Hallym University | And 3 more authors.
BMB Reports | Year: 2014

We isolated the phenolic glucoside salicortin from a Populus euramericana bark extract, and examined its ability to suppress inflammatory responses as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these abilities, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Salicortin inhibited iNOS expression and the subsequent production of NO in a dose-dependent manner in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Salicortin significantly suppressed LPS-induced signal cascades of NF-κB activation, such as IKK activation, IκBα phosphorylation and p65 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, salicortin inhibited the LPS-induced activation of JNK, but not ERK or p38 MAPK. Furthermore, salicortin significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings suggest that salicortin may show its anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-κB and JNK MAPK signaling cascades in macrophages. © 2014 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Source


Bae K.-H.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Yoon E.-S.,Kongju National University
Journal of Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Lilium cernum Komarvo. is an important endangered plant belonging to the family Liliaceae. A method was developed for the rapid micropropagation of L. cernum through plant regeneration from bulb scales explant-derived calli. The bulb scales segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 mg·L-1 kinetin and 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg·L-1 NAA or 2,4-D for callus induction. In media with 0.5∼3.0 mg·L-1 kinetin and 0.1∼1.0 mg·L-1 NAA and 2,4-D, 95∼100% of explants produced callus. They were then transferred to MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of NAA (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 1.0 mg·L-1) in combination with BA (0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg·L-1) for bulbet formation. Bulbet induction (78%), weight (468 mg) and size (15.5 mm) were obtained the highest on MS medium containing 2.0 mg·L-1 BA and 1.0 m g·L-1 NAA. In vitro frequency of plant regeneration was not significantly treated in strength of MS and sucrose concentration. Chlorophyll contents in 1/2MS with 50 g·L-1 sucrose treatments were higher than those in control and another treatment. This in vitro propagation protocol will be useful for conservation and mass propagation of this endangered plant. © Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology. Source


Ryu J.S.,Dankook University | Lee H.J.,Korea University | Bae S.H.,Hankyong National University | Kim S.Y.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

For the improvement of ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng by Phellinus linteus (FRG) were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The polyphenol content of FRG (19.14±0.50 mg/g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with that of non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG, 11.31±1.15 mg/g). The antioxidant activities in FRG, such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in NFRG. The HPLC analysis results showed that the FRG had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in NFRG and FRG were 41.65±1.53 mg/g and 50.12±1.43 mg/g, respectively. However, FRG had a significantly higher content (33.90±0.97 mg/g) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared with NFRG (14.75±0.46 mg/g). The skin permeability of FRG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cell models. In particular, after 3 h, the skin permeability of FRG was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of NFRG. Using a rat everted intestinal sac model, FRG showed a high transport level compared with NFRG after 1 h. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared with NFRG as indicated by skin permeation and intestinal permeability. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites). © The Korean Society of Ginseng. Source


Ryu B.,Pukyong National University | Himaya S.W.A.,Pukyong National University | Napitupulu R.J.,Pukyong National University | Eom T.-K.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Kim S.-K.,Pukyong National University
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed product of chitosan and its derivatives, are known to have interesting pharmaceutical and medicinal applications due to its high solubility, non-toxicity, and increased functionality. Among them sulfated chitooligosaccharides (SCOSs) have been identified to possess enhanced biological activities. This study reports the effects of SCOSs with different molecular weights on the degradation of articular cartilage through unregulated collagenase expression. The results indicated that the SCOS II (3-5 kDa) effectively inhibited the expressions of collagenases 1 and 3 and thereby prevented TNF-α induced degradation of collagen in human chondrosarcoma cells (SW-1353). Moreover, the signaling cascade responsible for this effect was found as SCOS II mediated suppression of NF-κB activation. Based on these data, it can be concluded that SCOS II prevented collagen degradation by inhibiting collagenases 1 and 3 via suppressing TNF-α induced NF-κB signaling. We suggest that SCOS II can be further studied as a potential candidate for the treatment of arthritis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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