Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb

Hongch’ŏn, South Korea

Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb

Hongch’ŏn, South Korea
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Yu T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee S.,Kangwon National University | Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Jang H.-J.,Kangwon National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Aceraceae) has been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases such as gastritis. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Cinnamomum cassia has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the anti-inflammatory mechanism of 95% ethanol extract (Cc-EE) of Cinnamomum cassia. Materials and methods: The effect of Cc-EE on the production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects, especially inhibitory effects, was elucidated by analyzing the activation of transcription factors and their upstream signaling, and by evaluating the kinase activity of target enzymes. Results: Cc-EE of Cinnamomum cassia diminished the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin (PG)E 2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Cc-EE also blocked mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and TNF-α by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and simultaneously inhibited its upstream inflammatory signaling cascades, including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Src. Consistent with these findings, the extract directly blocked the kinase activities of Src and Syk. Conclusion: Cc-EE exerts strong anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing Src/Syk-mediated NF-κB activation, which contributes to its major ethno-pharmacological role as an anti-gastritis remedy. Future work will be focused on determining whether the extract can be further developed as an anti-inflammatory drug. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Choi H.-S.,Korea University | Kim S.Y.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Park Y.,Korea University | Jung E.Y.,Jeonju University | Suh H.J.,Korea University
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2014

Background: In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods: Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Results: Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with the control (p < 0.05). In particular, deglycosylated ginsenosides including Rg3, which are known as bioactive compounds, were significantly increased after Rapidase treatment (p < 0.05). The Rapidase-treated group also increased the skin permeability of polyphenols compared with the control, showing the highest level of total sugar content among the enzyme treatment groups. Conclusion: This result showed that Rapidase induced the conversion of ginsenoside glycosides to aglycones. Meanwhile, Cytolase PCL5 and Econase treatments led to a significant increase of uronic acid (acidic polysaccharide) level. Taken together, our data showed that the treatments of enzymes including Rapidase are useful for the conversion and increase of ginsenosides in ginseng extracts or products. © 2014, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


Eom T.-K.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Ryu B.,Pukyong National University | Lee J.-K.,Bioscience Technology | Byun H.-G.,Bioscience Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Eight kinds of phenolic acid conjugated chitooligosaccharides (COSs) were synthesized using hydroxyl benzoic acid and hydroxyl cinnamic acid. These phenolic acid conjugated-COSs with different substitution groups, including p-hydroxyl, 3,4-dihydroxyl, 3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyl and 3,5-dimethoxyl-4-hydroxy groups, were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE) and inhibited BACE with a ratio of 50.8%, 74.8%, 62.1%, 64.8% and 42.6%, respectively at the concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. BACE is a critical component to reduce the levels of Aβ amyloid peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is based on the amyloid cascade theory in the brain, as this protease initiates the first step in Aβ production. Among them, Caffeic acid conjugated-COS (CFA-COS) was further analysed to determine mode of inhibition of BACE and it showed non-competitive inhibition. Hence in this study, we suggest that CFA-COS derivatives have potential to be used as novel BACE inhibitors to reduce the risk of AD. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Byeon S.E.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee J.,Chung - Ang University | Kim J.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 5 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2012

Red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Even though numerous studies have been reported, the mechanism as to how RGAP is able to stimulate the immune response is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of molecular activation of RGAP in macrophages. RGAP treatment strongly induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells without altering morphological changes, although the activity was not strong compared to LPS-induced dendritic-like morphology in RAW264.7 cells. RGAP-induced NO production was accompanied with enhanced mRNA levels of iNOS and increases in nuclear transcription factors such as NF-B, AP-1, STAT-1, ATF-2, and CREB. According to pharmacological evaluation with specific enzyme inhibitors, Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins and inhibitory pattern using blocking antibodies, ERK, and JNK were found to be the most important signaling enzymes compared to LPS signaling cascade. Further, TLR2 seems to be a target surface receptor of RGAP. Lastly, macrophages isolated from RGS2 knockout mice or wortmannin exposure strongly upregulated RGAP-treated NO production. Therefore, our results suggest that RGAP can activate macrophage function through activation of transcription factors such as NF-B and AP-1 and their upstream signaling enzymes such as ERK and JNK. Copyright © 2012 Se Eun Byeon et al.


Youn G.S.,Hallym University | Kwon D.-J.,Hallym University | Kwon D.-J.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Ju S.M.,Hallym University | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2014

HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Ryu J.S.,Dankook University | Lee H.J.,Korea University | Bae S.H.,Hankyong National University | Kim S.Y.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

For the improvement of ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng by Phellinus linteus (FRG) were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The polyphenol content of FRG (19.14±0.50 mg/g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with that of non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG, 11.31±1.15 mg/g). The antioxidant activities in FRG, such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in NFRG. The HPLC analysis results showed that the FRG had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in NFRG and FRG were 41.65±1.53 mg/g and 50.12±1.43 mg/g, respectively. However, FRG had a significantly higher content (33.90±0.97 mg/g) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared with NFRG (14.75±0.46 mg/g). The skin permeability of FRG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cell models. In particular, after 3 h, the skin permeability of FRG was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of NFRG. Using a rat everted intestinal sac model, FRG showed a high transport level compared with NFRG after 1 h. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared with NFRG as indicated by skin permeation and intestinal permeability. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites). © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


PubMed | Sungkyunkwan University, Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb and Samsung
Type: | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

Pinecones from Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. (Pinaceae), which have historically been treated as an undesired waste by-product in the processing of seeds, have recently been shown to contain ingredients with potent biological activities, such as polyphenols exhibiting anti-tumor activity. With this study, we seek to broaden our understanding of anti-tumor compounds contained in these pinecones beyond just polyphenols. We found that the water extract of P. koraiensis pinecones exhibits significant anti-cancer activity, with IC


Lee H.J.,Korea University | Lee H.-S.,Korea University | Cho H.J.,Korea University | Kim S.Y.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Suh H.J.,Korea University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

This study was performed to measure the amount of ginsenoside content obtained from dried ginseng leaf powder treated with various enzymes, including Ultraflo L. Ultraflo L showed superior results to other enzymes and untreated ginseng leaf in catalyzing the liberation of biological compounds. The total ginsenoside content and metabolites showed the highest levels (406.1 μg/mg and 93.1 μg/mg, respectively) in ginseng leaf extract treated with Ultraflo L (UTGL). In particular, the content of ginsenoside F2 in UTGL was 8.5-fold greater compared to that found in the roots. UTGL showed significantly higher DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities (2.77 mg/mL and 1.57 mg/mL of IC 50 value, respectively) than untreated ginseng leaf. Ginseng leaf treated with Ultraflo L has advantages over untreated ginseng leaf in terms of cost and source availability. These data also suggest that the leaves and stems of ginseng may be used as food resources, functional food materials, and feedstuffs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ryu B.,Pukyong National University | Himaya S.W.A.,Pukyong National University | Napitupulu R.J.,Pukyong National University | Eom T.-K.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Kim S.-K.,Pukyong National University
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed product of chitosan and its derivatives, are known to have interesting pharmaceutical and medicinal applications due to its high solubility, non-toxicity, and increased functionality. Among them sulfated chitooligosaccharides (SCOSs) have been identified to possess enhanced biological activities. This study reports the effects of SCOSs with different molecular weights on the degradation of articular cartilage through unregulated collagenase expression. The results indicated that the SCOS II (3-5 kDa) effectively inhibited the expressions of collagenases 1 and 3 and thereby prevented TNF-α induced degradation of collagen in human chondrosarcoma cells (SW-1353). Moreover, the signaling cascade responsible for this effect was found as SCOS II mediated suppression of NF-κB activation. Based on these data, it can be concluded that SCOS II prevented collagen degradation by inhibiting collagenases 1 and 3 via suppressing TNF-α induced NF-κB signaling. We suggest that SCOS II can be further studied as a potential candidate for the treatment of arthritis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kwon D.-J.,Hallym University | Kwon D.-J.,Hongcheon Institute of Medicinal Herb | Bae Y.-S.,Kangwon National University | Ju S.M.,Hallym University | And 3 more authors.
BMB Reports | Year: 2014

We isolated the phenolic glucoside salicortin from a Populus euramericana bark extract, and examined its ability to suppress inflammatory responses as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these abilities, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Salicortin inhibited iNOS expression and the subsequent production of NO in a dose-dependent manner in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Salicortin significantly suppressed LPS-induced signal cascades of NF-κB activation, such as IKK activation, IκBα phosphorylation and p65 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, salicortin inhibited the LPS-induced activation of JNK, but not ERK or p38 MAPK. Furthermore, salicortin significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings suggest that salicortin may show its anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-κB and JNK MAPK signaling cascades in macrophages. © 2014 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

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