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Hong Kong, China

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology is a public research university in Clear Water Bay Peninsula, Hong Kong. Established in 1991, it is one of the territory's youngest statutory universities.The University currently consists of four disciplinary schools, which offer degrees in Business, Engineering, Science and Social Science & Humanities, alongside Interdisciplinary Programs Office, which provides cross-disciplinary programs, and Fok Ying Tung Graduate School/Fok Ying Tung Research Institute, which aims at technology transfer and commercialization. HKUST has been continuously viewed as one of the top three higher education institutions in Hong Kong. Wikipedia.

Cheung T.H.,Stanford University | Cheung T.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Rando T.A.,Stanford University | Rando T.A.,Neurology Service and Rehabilitation Research
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Subsets of mammalian adult stem cells reside in the quiescent state for prolonged periods of time. This state, which is reversible, has long been viewed as dormant and with minimal basal activity. Recent advances in adult stem cell isolation have provided insights into the epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of quiescence and suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state in which signalling pathways are involved in maintaining a poised state that allows rapid activation. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms regulating adult stem cell quiescence will increase our understanding of tissue regeneration mechanisms and how they are dysregulated in pathological conditions and in ageing. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Lin Z.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010

Computational and theoretical chemistry provide fundamental insights into the structures, properties, and reactivities of molecules. As a result, theoretical calculations have become indispensable in various fields of chemical research and development. In this Account, we present our research in the area of computational transition metal chemistry, using examples to illustrate how theory impacts our understanding of experimental results and how close collaboration between theoreticians and experimental chemists can be mutually beneficial. We begin by examining the use of computational chemistry to elucidate the details of some unusual chemical bonds. We consider the three-center, two-electron bonding in titanocene σ-borane complexes and the five-center, four-electron bonding in a rhodium-bismuth complex. The bonding in metallabenzene complexes is also examined. In each case, theoretical calculations provide particular insight into the electronic structure of the chemical bonds. We then give an example of how theoretical calculations aided the structural determination of a κ2-N,N chelate ruthenium complex formed upon heating an intermediate benzonitrile-coordinated complex. An initial X-ray diffraction structure proposed on the basis of a reasonable mechanism appeared to fit well, with an apparently acceptable R value of 0.0478. But when DFT calculations were applied, the optimized geometry differed significantly from the experimental data. By combining experimental and theoretical outlooks, we posited a new structure. Remarkably, a re-refining of the X-ray diffraction data based on the new structure resulted in a slightly lower R value of 0.0453. We further examine the use of computational chemistry in providing new insight into C-H bond activation mechanisms and in understanding the reactivity properties of nucleophilic boryl ligands, addressing experimental difficulties with calculations and vice versa. Finally, we consider the impact of theoretical insights in three very specific experimental studies of chemical reactions, illustrating how theoretical results prompt further experimental studies: (i) diboration of aldehydes catalyzed by copper(I) boryl complexes, (ii) ruthenium-catalyzed C-H amination of arylazides, and (iii) zinc reduction of a vinylcarbyne complex. The concepts and examples presented here are intended for nonspecialists, particularly experimentalists. Together, they illustrate some of the achievements that are possible with a fruitful union of experiment and theory. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Banfield D.K.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2011

The protein composition of the Golgi is intimately linked to its structure and function. As the Golgi serves as the major protein-sorting hub for the secretory pathway, it faces the unique challenge of maintaining its protein composition in the face of constant influx and efflux of transient cargo proteins. Much of our understanding of how proteins are retained in the Golgi has come from studies on glycosylation enzymes, largely because of the compartment specific distributions these proteins display. From these and other studies of Golgi membrane proteins, we now understand that a variety of retention mechanisms are employed, the majority of which involve the dynamic process of iterative rounds of retrograde and anterograde transport. Such mechanisms rely on protein conformation and amino acid-based sorting signals as well as on properties of transmembrane domains and their relationship with the unique lipid composition of the Golgi. © 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Chow T.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models has been introduced and their appropriateness validated by experimental data. Important design parameters are identified. Collaborations have been underway amongst institutions or countries, helping to sort out the suitable products and systems with the best marketing potential. This article gives a review of the trend of development of the technology, in particular the advancements in recent years and the future work required. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lam H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. Conceptually, the premise of this approach is that the tandem MS fragmentation pattern of a peptide under some fixed conditions is a reproducible fingerprint of that peptide, such that unknown spectra acquired under the same conditions can be identified by spectral matching. In actual practice, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed and identified tandem MS spectra, usually obtained from shotgun proteomics experiments of complex mixtures. Then, a query spectrum is then identified by spectral matching using recently developed spectral search engines. This review discusses the basic principles of the two pillars of this approach: spectral library construction, and spectral library searching. An overview of the software tools available for these two tasks, as well as a high-level description of the underlying algorithms, will be given. Finally, several new methods that utilize spectral libraries for peptide identification in ways other than straightforward spectral matching will also be described. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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