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Yip W.L.,Queen Mary Hospital | Ng H.W.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Tse M.L.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Lau F.L.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2011

Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of paediatric poisoning in Hong Kong. Design: Retrospective review. Setting: The cases of Hong Kong Poison Information Centre (HKPIC). Participants: All poisoning cases involving patients with age less than 18 years old during the period of July 2005 to June 2008. Main Outcome Measures: Demographic data, type of poison involved, reason of poisoning, management, disposal, and final outcome of patients. Results: Totally 1002 cases were included and analysed. Thirtyfive percent and 31% of patients were in age group of 1-3 and 15-17 respectively. Sixty-four percent of toddlers were male, while 72% of adolescents were female. Younger patients usually had accidental exposure, while older patients often had intentional exposure. Pharmaceutical agents were involved in most patients, with use of analgesics being the commonest. Most patients experienced no adverse effects or presented with a benign course. Overall mortality of our study was 0.3%, with no permanent disability in survivors. Conclusion: Male toddlers tend to have accidental exposure, while female teenagers tend to have intentional ingestion. Medical practitioners should be aware of those with toxic exposure and provide prompt and appropriate care.

Wong O.F.,Tuen Mun Hospital | Chan Y.C.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Lam S.K.,Tuen Mun Hospital | Fung H.T.,Tuen Mun Hospital | Ho J.K.Y.,Tuen Mun Hospital
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2011

Hydroxychloroquine overdose is a rare condition and often results in severe cardiovascular toxicities. We report 2 cases of fatal hydroxychloroquine overdose (1 patient had co-ingestion of chloroquine). Both patients developed refractory cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrest soon after the drug overdose. Both of them were treated with high dose adrenaline and diazepam. However, they deteriorated rapidly despite the treatments. In view of similar toxicological profile of hydroxychloroquine to other lipophilic cardiotoxic medications, intravenous lipid emulsion was given as the last resort but both of them died eventually. Based on the clinical experience from these 2 cases, Intravenous lipid emulsion is not effective in reversing the cardiotoxic effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine overdose.

Lee H.K.H.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Ng H.W.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Tse M.L.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Lau F.L.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Ketamine is one of the commonest abusing agents in Hong Kong. Our study aims to identify their clinical pattern of presentations to emergency departments. Method: This is a retrospective survey study. The studied group was ketamine abusers being referred to us from a source out of emergency department (ED). Control group was randomly selected from patients attending our ED. The electronic records of the ketamine abusers and the controls in the past 3 years (1st April 2004-31st March 2007) were reviewed and analysed. Result: Total 91 subjects (48 in ketamine group, 43 in control group) were included. The mean age of ketamine abusers and control group are 21 and 22.2 year-old respectively. Most of them (97.9%) did not declare their background of ketamine abuse. The mean 3-year attendance rate for the ketamine group was 2.38 and for control group was 0.91, with a difference of 1.47 (95% CI 0.54-2.41, p=0.003). Most of their illnesses were diagnosed as epigastric pain (25%), followed by upper respiratory tract infection (18.8%), head injury (10.4%) and urinary tract infection (10.4%). Significantly higher number of ketamine abusers presented with epigastric pain compared with control group (odds ratio 143, p<0.001). Conclusion: Most teenage ketamine abusers do not declare their background of drug abuse when they present to emergency departments. They tend to have a higher frequency of attendances. Most of their presenting problems are related to gastrointestinal system.

Tang K.Y.,Caritas Medical Center | Chan C.K.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center | Lau F.L.,Hong Kong Poison Information Center
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2010

We describe the use of dextrose 50 solution to differentiate naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene in the mothball float test. Its advantages over saturated salt solution are discussed. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

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