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Liu K.F.-R.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Chen C.-W.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Shen Y.-S.,Holistic Education Center
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The sanitary sewerage connection rate is an important indicator of advanced cities. Following the construction of sanitary sewerages, the maintenance and management systems are required for keeping pipelines and facilities functioning well. These maintenance tasks often require sewer workers to enter the manholes and the pipelines, which are confined spaces short of natural ventilation and have the potential for hazardous substances to be present. Working in sewers could be easily exposed to a risk of adverse health effects. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks as a higher level of noncarcinogenic health risk assessment of sewer workers. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the Bayesian belief networks is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances in sewers and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity and mortality of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity and mortality rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods. © 2012 CEERS, IAU. Source

Wang S.-P.,Holistic Education Center | Lin S.-W.,Tamkang University | Chyan C.-J.,Tamkang University
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2011

This work gives a criterion for the existence of positive solutions for nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with two-point boundary conditions on time scales. Moreover, for some source terms which are in the sense of sublinear or superlinear, we also formulate corollaries and examples for applications and we improve previous results related with the first eigenvalue discussed by Professor Li. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ma C.-M.,St. Marys College | Hong G.-B.,St. Marys College | Chen H.-W.,St. Marys College | Hang N.-T.,Da - Yeh University | Shen Y.-S.,Holistic Education Center
International Journal of Photoenergy | Year: 2011

The effects of pH value, VUV intensity, initial dye concentration, initial H 2O 2 concentration, and TiO 2 loading dose on the degradation of three azo dyes: acid Orange 8, acid Blue 29, and acid Blue 113 were studied to explore and compare the treatment efficiencies among the adopted AOPs. It was found that pH played an important role in the degradation of dyes using VUV irradiation. For VUV/H 2O 2, VUV/TiO 2, and VUV/TiO 2/H 2O 2 processes, the decoloration rates of the three azo dyes were more efficient under acidic conditions relative to alkaline conditions. The degradation rates of dyes increased with increasing concentrations of H 2O 2, but reaction rates were retarded at high concentrations of H 2O 2 because the H 2O 2 compound acted as a scavenger of the hydroxyl radical. In this paper, three azo dyes were decomposed efficiently by VUV irradiation only demonstrating the effectiveness of VUV direct photolysis. Copyright © 2011 Chih-Ming Ma et al. Source

Lai Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu T.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Li P.-C.,Mackay Medical College | Shih W.-T.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Young S.-T.,Holistic Education Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: The purpose of this study was to design and to verify a new hearing-aid fitting strategy (Aescu HRL-1) based on the acoustic features of Mandarin. The subjective and objective outcomes were compared to those fitted with NAL-NL1 (National Acoustic Laboratory Non-Linear, version1) in Mandarin-speaking hearing-aid users. Design: Fifteen subjects with sensorineural hearing loss participated in this preliminary study. Each subject wore a pair of four-channel hearing aids fitted with the Aescu HRL-1 and NAL-NL1 prescriptions alternatively for 1 month. Objective and subjective tests including the Mandarin Monosyllable Recognition Test (MMRT), Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT), International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), and a sound-quality questionnaire were used to evaluate the performance of the two prescriptions. Results: The mean MMRT scores were 79.9% and 81.1% for NAL-NL1 and Aescu HRL-1 respectively. They are not statistically different. The corresponding MHINT signal-to-noise ratios were 0.87 and 0.85 dB, also, no significant difference was found between these two strategies. However, in subjective questionnaires, overall, the sound-quality and IOI-HA scores were higher for Aescu HRL-1. Conclusions: The speech recognition performance based on Aescu HRL-1 is as good as that of NAL-NL1 for Mandarin-speaking hearing-aid users. Moreover, the subjects generally responded that Aescu HRL-1 provides a more natural, richer, and better sound quality than does NAL-NL1. © 2013 Lai et al. Source

Huang K.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Huang K.-C.,Holistic Education Center | Wu W.-T.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | Yang F.-L.,Intensive Care Unit | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2013

The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE) supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE); exhaustive exercise (E); and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE). The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury. © 2013 by the authors. Source

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