Holetta Agricultural Research Center

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Holetta Agricultural Research Center

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Keneni G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Imtiaz M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

Genetic diversity and population structure were studied in 155 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) entries using 33 polymorphic microsatellite (SSR) markers. Molecular analysis of variance showed variations of 73% within and 27% among populations. Introduced genotypes exhibited highest polymorphism (70. 27%) than the landraces (36-57%). Collections from Shewa, Harerge, W. Gojam and S. Gonder regions also showed higher polymorphism (50-57%) than the rest of the local accessions (36-45%). Analyses of pairwise population Nei genetic distance and PhiPT coefficients, expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (UHe), Shannon's information index (I) and percent polymorphism (% P) showed existence of high genetic variation between geographical regions. Accessions from adjoining geographical regions mostly showed more genetic similarities than those from origins far isolated apart. This could be associated with the ease and likelihood of inter-regional gene flow and seed movement particularly during times of drought. The 155 entries were grouped into five clusters following analysis of population structure. The first cluster (C 1) constituted accessions from Arsi; the second (C 2) from Gojam and Gonder; the third (C 3) from Harerge and E. and N. Shewa; and the fourth (C 4) from W. Shewa, Tigray, and Wello regions. The fifth cluster (C 5) was entirely consisted of improved genotypes. Improved genotypes of both Kabuli and Desi types distinctly fell into cluster five (C 5) regardless of their difference in seed types. The result has firmly established that introduction of genetic materials from exotic sources has broadened the genetic base of the national chickpea breeding program. Further implications of the findings as regards to chickpea germplasm management and its utilization in breeding program are also discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Keneni G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Getu E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Sustainability | Year: 2011

Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis, C. maculatus, C. analis, Acanthoscelides obtectus, Bruchus incarnatus, B. rufimanus, B. dentipes, B. quinqueguttatus, B. emarginatus, B. ervi, B. lentis and B. pisorum. Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry practices for preserving the quality of produce. Storage insect pests are commonly controlled using chemical insecticides which, however, bear many drawbacks related to high cost, environmental pollution and food safety risks. Breeding legume crops to improve their resistance against storage insect pests, although having technical limitations, is the best way of overcoming these disadvantages in an environment-friendly manner. In this paper, we present the findings of our extensive reviews on the potential of breeding resistant varieties of food legumes against storage insect pests along with the major technical limitations one would likely encounter and the prospective ways of tackling them. © 2011 by the authors.

Gidey Y.T.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Kebede S.A.,Jimma University | Gashawbeza G.T.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to characterize and to estimate the extent of genetic variation of morphological attributes of Ethiopian sesame landraces (Sesamum indicum L.). An experiment was conducted in 2010 at Humera and Dansha, Ethiopia. Eighty one germplasm accessions were grown in a lattice design with 2 replications. Data on 17 traits were collected and analyzed. Differences among the accessions were significant for all of the traits at each location and pooled over location. The accessions were grouped into six clusters of different sizes. Cumulative effects of a number of characters dictated differentiation of the accessions into clusters. There was no definite relationship between geographic and genetic diversity as overlapping was encountered in clustering pattern among accessions from different parts of the country. Accessions from different regions might have similar genetic background and those from the same origin might also have different genetic diversity. Therefore, geographic diversity should not necessarily be used as an index of genetic diversity and parental selection should be based on a systematic study of genetic diversity in a specific population. Genetic distances among most of the clusters were significant that crosses between parents selected out of them are expected to generate desirable genetic recombination. Selection should also consider the special advantages of each cluster and each accession within a cluster. Future germplasm collection, conservation and breeding efforts should focus not only on inter-regional diversity but also on intr a-regional diversity. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

Belete Y.S.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Kebede S.A.,Jimma University | Gemelal A.W.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to assess the extent and pattern of genetic variability of Ethiopian mustard genotypes with respect to eight seed oil quality traits in 36 Ethiopian mustard genotypes at Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in simple lattice design. Univariate analysis of variance has shown that there was significant variation among genotypes in all traits. Multivariate analysis has resulted in the formation of seven clusters and has shown the presence of substantial genetic diversity for further selection and breeding. Genetic distances among most clusters were significant from which selection of parents may be made for crossing in order to obtain genetic recombination and transgressive seggregants. Genotype in cluster 7 was relatively the highest in oleic and the lowest in erucic acid in its seed oil. Likewise, genotypes in cluster 2 and 4 showed the highest erucic acid and the highest oil content in their seedsm, respectively. Apart from selecting genotypes from the clusters which have higher inter-cluster distance, within a cluster performance of genotypes should also be considered for a particular trait of interest. The cumulative effects of individual traits were responsible for differential grouping of genotypes. The present investigation also revealed that diverse geographic region, though important, it could not be the only index of genetic variations, in which selection pressure, environment and genetic drift may also be the cause. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Hunde D.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Meszaros G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Dessie T.,International Livestock Research Institute | Assefa G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The reproductive and productive performances of dairy cows are essential for the profitability of dairy farmers. The aim of this study was to determine milk yield and reproductive performance of pure Jersey dairy cattle at Adea Berga Dairy Research Center in the central highlands of Ethiopia. General linear model was used to estimate the effect of fixed factors. Overall 3015 performance records were used. The least squares mean of reproductive performances were 30 months for age at first calving, 497 days for calving interval and 2 for number of services per conception. The least square mean of lactation milk yield was 2155 kg in 336 days lactation length. The influence of birth year and birth season were significant on age at first calving (P<0.001). Lactation milk yield, lactation length, calving interval and number of services per conception were significantly affected by year and parity (P<0.001). However, calving season did not have significant influence on calving interval and lactation milk (p>0.05). The results indicate that Jersey cows under the particular management of Adea Berga Farm produced reasonable amounts of milk. The value of age at first calving (30 months) recorded for a Jersey cow in this study was promising. The feeding and animal health intervention is essential to reduce the environmental stress. Since the farm is being used as genetic pool to recruit bulls for crossbreeding activities, better breeding schemes should be designed for further improvement of reproductive and productive performances of Jersey cattle. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Alemu T.,Wollo University | Seifu E.,Botswana College of Agriculture | Seifu E.,Haramaya University | Bezabih A.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to characterize honey produced in Sekota district in northern Ethiopia and to assess the effects of location (lowland, midland and highland) and hive type (modern zander-frame and traditional tube basket) on the quality of honey produced in the area. A total of 20 honey samples were collected from four locations in Sekota district. Reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, pH, moisture, ash, hydroxymethylfurfural, acidity and water-insoluble solids contents of the honey samples were analyzed. The pH of honey samples collected from the midland of the district was significantly higher than (p < 0.05) the pH of honey samples collected from lowland areas. Hive type significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the reducing sugars contents of the honey samples. The water-insoluble solids content of the honey samples analyzed in this study is above the maximum limit set by national and international standards for water-insoluble solids content of honey. Although honey produced in Sekota district is generally of good quality, efforts need to be made to reduce the water-insoluble solids content of the honey.

Hirpa A.,Wageningen University | Hirpa A.,Hawassa University | Meuwissen M.P.M.,Wageningen University | Tesfaye A.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2010

This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize improving seed quality by increasing awareness and skills of farmers, improving seed tuber quality of early generations and market access. The alternative and formal seed systems should prioritize improving the production capacity of quality seed by availing new varieties, designing quality control methods and improving farmer's awareness. To improve overall seed potato supply in Ethiopia, experts postulated co-existence and linkage of the three seed systems and development of self-regulation and self-certification in the informal, alternative and formal cooperative seed potato systems. © The Author(s) 2010.

Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Imtiaz M.,International Center For Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Euphytica | Year: 2010

A number of improved cultivars of food legume crops have been developed and released in the tropics and the sub-tropics. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding approaches based on the development of crop varieties under optimum soil fertility levels. Nevertheless, it is hardly possible to say that the varietal provisions made by the past approach have been readily accepted, and properly utilized to boost productivity of food legumes grown by resource-poor farmers. The approach itself did not fully appreciate the actual circumstances of the resource-poor farmers where marginal production systems prevail and the poorest farmers could not afford to use cultivars developed under optimum soil fertility level. Therefore, the limitations and strategic implications of past experiences made to develop crop cultivars need to be analyzed in order to formulate better strategies and approaches in the future. The main purpose of this article is to review the efforts made, the technical difficulties associated with the genetic improvement in food legumes as related to plant-nutrient relations, causes of limited breeding success and thereby draw lessons useful to designing future breeding strategies. The scope of nutrient deficiency stress and the approaches to breeding for plant-nutrient relations are discussed and the need for refining the approach and better targeting of the breeding methodologies suggested. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Tolessa T.T.,Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center | Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Mohammad H.,Hawassa University
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2015

Eleven faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties released between 1977 and 2007, and two promising genotypes, were evaluated to estimate the genetic progresses made in 33 years of faba bean breeding in Ethiopia. The study was conducted at eight environments during 2007 and 2009 cropping seasons in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Records taken on grain yield, seed size and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) severity were subjected to statistical analysis. Combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes and the test environments for all traits, the G × E interaction effects being significant for grain yield and seed size. Regression of mean performance at all environments on year of varietal release showed positive relationship for grain yield (r = 0.48) and seed size (r = 0.80**) but negative for chocolate spot (r = -0.60*). The annual rates of genetic progresses were 8.74 kg ha-1, 8.07 g 1000 seeds-1 and -0.27% for grain yield, seed size and chocolate spot, respectively. The average cumulative gains over 33 years of breeding was, therefore, 288.4 kg (8.1%) for grain yield, 266.3 g (51.12%) for seed size and -8.9% for chocolate spot severity. Seed size showed the most dramatic response to breeding for the last 33 years may be because of a lesser polygenic nature of this trait and better availability of best donor parents as compared to grain yield. The relatively slower responses of grain yield and chocolate spot to breeding may be associated with the polygenetic nature of the former and shortage of good donor parents for the later. The prior release of an exceptionally stable and better adapted variety, CS20DK, in 1977 might also seemingly undermined progresses of later efforts. It is, therefore, strategically advisable that breeding efforts in the future should give due attention to building on the shortcomings of widely adapted varieties like CS20DK.

Alemu T.,Wollo University Dessie Campus | Seifu E.,Botswana College of Agriculture | Bezabih A.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to assess postharvest handling of honey and to identify opportunities and constraints of honeybee production in Sekota district, northern Ethiopia. From the district two, three and four peasant associations (PAs) were randomly selected from the 33 PAs-stratified by location into highland, lowland and midland areas, respectively. Overall, 90 beekeeping households were selected purposively ten from each PA based on their experience in apiculture and participation in extension activities. The data generated was analyzed using the SPSS software. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Major constraints for the development of apiculture in the area were drought, pests and predators and application of chemicals. Whereas the opportunities for the development of the apiculture sub-sector include experience and indigenous knowledge beekeepers, and attention given for the subsector by governmental and non-governmental organizations operating in the area in capacity building for improvement the production practices and honey quality. The length of storage of honey ranged from less than a month to greater than two years. Gourd, earthen pot, plastics and animal skins were the most important honey storage materials used in the area. Thus, conservation of natural resources, training on queen rearing techniques, provision of scientific control measures for the major bee enemies and diseases as well as provision of credit facilities and inputs are essential for sustainable development of the apicultural sector in the area. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

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