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Gidey Y.T.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Kebede S.A.,Jimma University | Gashawbeza G.T.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to characterize and to estimate the extent of genetic variation of morphological attributes of Ethiopian sesame landraces (Sesamum indicum L.). An experiment was conducted in 2010 at Humera and Dansha, Ethiopia. Eighty one germplasm accessions were grown in a lattice design with 2 replications. Data on 17 traits were collected and analyzed. Differences among the accessions were significant for all of the traits at each location and pooled over location. The accessions were grouped into six clusters of different sizes. Cumulative effects of a number of characters dictated differentiation of the accessions into clusters. There was no definite relationship between geographic and genetic diversity as overlapping was encountered in clustering pattern among accessions from different parts of the country. Accessions from different regions might have similar genetic background and those from the same origin might also have different genetic diversity. Therefore, geographic diversity should not necessarily be used as an index of genetic diversity and parental selection should be based on a systematic study of genetic diversity in a specific population. Genetic distances among most of the clusters were significant that crosses between parents selected out of them are expected to generate desirable genetic recombination. Selection should also consider the special advantages of each cluster and each accession within a cluster. Future germplasm collection, conservation and breeding efforts should focus not only on inter-regional diversity but also on intr a-regional diversity. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia. Source

Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Keneni G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Imtiaz M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

Genetic diversity and population structure were studied in 155 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) entries using 33 polymorphic microsatellite (SSR) markers. Molecular analysis of variance showed variations of 73% within and 27% among populations. Introduced genotypes exhibited highest polymorphism (70. 27%) than the landraces (36-57%). Collections from Shewa, Harerge, W. Gojam and S. Gonder regions also showed higher polymorphism (50-57%) than the rest of the local accessions (36-45%). Analyses of pairwise population Nei genetic distance and PhiPT coefficients, expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (UHe), Shannon's information index (I) and percent polymorphism (% P) showed existence of high genetic variation between geographical regions. Accessions from adjoining geographical regions mostly showed more genetic similarities than those from origins far isolated apart. This could be associated with the ease and likelihood of inter-regional gene flow and seed movement particularly during times of drought. The 155 entries were grouped into five clusters following analysis of population structure. The first cluster (C 1) constituted accessions from Arsi; the second (C 2) from Gojam and Gonder; the third (C 3) from Harerge and E. and N. Shewa; and the fourth (C 4) from W. Shewa, Tigray, and Wello regions. The fifth cluster (C 5) was entirely consisted of improved genotypes. Improved genotypes of both Kabuli and Desi types distinctly fell into cluster five (C 5) regardless of their difference in seed types. The result has firmly established that introduction of genetic materials from exotic sources has broadened the genetic base of the national chickpea breeding program. Further implications of the findings as regards to chickpea germplasm management and its utilization in breeding program are also discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Alemu T.,Wollo University | Seifu E.,Botswana College of Agriculture | Seifu E.,Haramaya University | Bezabih A.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to characterize honey produced in Sekota district in northern Ethiopia and to assess the effects of location (lowland, midland and highland) and hive type (modern zander-frame and traditional tube basket) on the quality of honey produced in the area. A total of 20 honey samples were collected from four locations in Sekota district. Reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, pH, moisture, ash, hydroxymethylfurfural, acidity and water-insoluble solids contents of the honey samples were analyzed. The pH of honey samples collected from the midland of the district was significantly higher than (p < 0.05) the pH of honey samples collected from lowland areas. Hive type significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the reducing sugars contents of the honey samples. The water-insoluble solids content of the honey samples analyzed in this study is above the maximum limit set by national and international standards for water-insoluble solids content of honey. Although honey produced in Sekota district is generally of good quality, efforts need to be made to reduce the water-insoluble solids content of the honey. Source

Hirpa A.,Wageningen University | Hirpa A.,Hawassa University | Meuwissen M.P.M.,Wageningen University | Tesfaye A.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2010

This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize improving seed quality by increasing awareness and skills of farmers, improving seed tuber quality of early generations and market access. The alternative and formal seed systems should prioritize improving the production capacity of quality seed by availing new varieties, designing quality control methods and improving farmer's awareness. To improve overall seed potato supply in Ethiopia, experts postulated co-existence and linkage of the three seed systems and development of self-regulation and self-certification in the informal, alternative and formal cooperative seed potato systems. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Keneni G.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center | Imtiaz M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Euphytica | Year: 2010

A number of improved cultivars of food legume crops have been developed and released in the tropics and the sub-tropics. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding approaches based on the development of crop varieties under optimum soil fertility levels. Nevertheless, it is hardly possible to say that the varietal provisions made by the past approach have been readily accepted, and properly utilized to boost productivity of food legumes grown by resource-poor farmers. The approach itself did not fully appreciate the actual circumstances of the resource-poor farmers where marginal production systems prevail and the poorest farmers could not afford to use cultivars developed under optimum soil fertility level. Therefore, the limitations and strategic implications of past experiences made to develop crop cultivars need to be analyzed in order to formulate better strategies and approaches in the future. The main purpose of this article is to review the efforts made, the technical difficulties associated with the genetic improvement in food legumes as related to plant-nutrient relations, causes of limited breeding success and thereby draw lessons useful to designing future breeding strategies. The scope of nutrient deficiency stress and the approaches to breeding for plant-nutrient relations are discussed and the need for refining the approach and better targeting of the breeding methodologies suggested. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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