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Higashimurayama-shi, Japan

Yamashita K.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Sasaki W.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Haga H.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Fujisaki K.,Fuji Plant Co.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

'Super-Kitamomiji', a leading onion (Allium cepa. L) cultivar in Hokkaido, was stored under controlled atmosphere (CA) to investigate the effects of CA storage on storage life and shelf life and to assess the practicality of a CA storage facility. Bulbs were stored for 92 days, 135 days and 196 days in a regular air refrigerator (-0.5°C, 80% RH) and in a CA refrigerator (1°C, 80% RH, O2: 1%, CO2: 1%), and grading, sprout and root growth, firmness, total soluble solid content, pyruvate content and sugar content were investigated. The same items were also investigated in bulbs after storage at 15°C for 14 days in order to determine shelf life. Sprout growth and root growth were inhibited during CA storage. The ratio of unmarketable bulbs 14 days after CA storage was also lower than that after regular air storage. Total sugar content and pyruvate content increased during storage, but there was no significant difference between the contents in bulbs after regular air storage and CA storage. The results suggested that CA storage will enable the time limit for distribution of onions to be extended from April to June. Based on these results, CA facilities were constructed in Kitami (2,600 t, 2 rooms) and in Furano (6,700 t, 7 rooms), and bulbs have been stored in these facilities up until July.

Nishimura M.,Hokkaido Information University | Yoshida S.-I.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Haramoto M.,Satake Co. | Mizuno H.,Satake Co. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2016

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter with beneficial effects including antihypertension and antistress properties. In this study, we examined the effects of GABA-enriched white rice (GABA rice) on blood pressure (BP) in 39 mildly hypertensive adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group (n = 22) who consumed rice with 11.2 mg GABA/100 g of rice and a placebo group (n = 17) who consumed rice with 2.7 mg GABA/100 g of rice. For 8 weeks, the participants took 150 g of either the GABA rice or the placebo rice. Hematological examinations were performed on both groups at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of rice consumption. Home BP was self-measured two times daily, morning and evening, from 1 weeks before to 2 weeks after the intervention. Although the hospital BP and evening BP measurements of the participants showed no significant change, consumption of the GABA rice improved the morning BP compared with the placebo rice after the 1st week and during the 6th and 8th weeks. These results showed the possibility that the GABA rice improves morning hypertension. © 2014 Center for Food and Biomolecules, National Taiwan University.

Tsukazaki H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yamashita K.-I.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yaguchi S.,Yamaguchi University | Yaguchi S.,Toricon Co. | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Torada A.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Koike M.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | Ogawa T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Takenouchi Y.,Hokuren Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2016

Seed germination under the appropriate environmental conditions is important both for plant species survival and for successful agriculture. Seed dormancy, which controls germination time, is one of the adaptation mechanisms and domestication traits [1]. Seed dormancy is generally defined as the absence of germination of a viable seed under conditions that are favorable for germination [2]. The seed dormancy of cultivated plants has generally been reduced during domestication [3]. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown crops in the world. Weak dormancy may be an advantage for the productivity due to uniform emergence and a disadvantage for the risks of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which decreases grain quality and yield [4]. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling natural variation of seed dormancy have been identified on various chromosomes [5]. A major QTL for seed dormancy has been consistently detected on chromosome 4A [6-13]. The QTL was designated as a major gene, Phs1, which could be precisely mapped within a 2.6 cM region [14]. Here, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) gene (designated TaMKK3-A) by a map-based approach as a candidate gene for the seed dormancy locus Phs1 on chromosome 4A in bread wheat. Complementation analysis showed that transformation of a dormant wheat cultivar with the TaMKK3-A allele from a nondormant cultivar clearly reduced seed dormancy. Cultivars differing in dormancy had a single nonsynonymous amino acid substitution in the kinase domain of the predicted MKK3 protein sequence, which may be associated with the length of seed dormancy. Torada et al. identify a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) gene is a causal gene of seed dormancy locus on chromosome 4A in bread wheat. Cultivars differing in dormancy had a nonsynonymous amino acid substitution in the kinase domain of the predicted MKK3 protein sequence, which may be associated with the length of seed dormancy. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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